MP Board Class 11th English A Voyage Solutions Chapter 25 The Gospel of Selfless Action

MP Board Class 11th English A Voyage Solutions Chapter 25 The Gospel of Selfless Action (M. K. Gandhi)

The Gospel of Selfless Action Textual Exercises

Word Power

A. Use the following pair of words in sentences to bring out their and their difference.
guise-guys, right-rite, peace-piece, fount-font, buy-by, jealous- zealous, fear-fair.
Answer :
Guise —The pandit was begging in the guise of a beggar.
Guys—Some of the guys came forward to help me.

Right—the right to information has empowered common man to a great extent.
Rite—A great number of people were present in the last rite of Mr Ahuja.

Peace—Everyone wants to live in peace.
Piece—I am totally confused and want a piece of advice from you.

Fount—Tanay treats his father as if he were the fount of all knowledge
Font—The font size of this book is too small.

Buy—I don’t have much money to buy a flat.
By—He started telling the woes of his life sitting by me.

Jealous—My parents are jealous of none.
Zealous—Raja Rammohan Ray was a zealous social reformer.

Fear—The boy was shaking with fear.
Fair—There is a fair chance that Ankit might obtain first position in his class.

B. Match the words is column ‘A’ with their Synonyms in column ‘B’.

A – B

1. lofty – not important or serious
2. trivial – something that you are given for a good deed
3. alluring – very high and impressive
4. reward – a strong feeling that something is true
5. belief – attracting and exciting
Answer:

A – B
1. lofty – very high and impressive
2. trivial – not important or serious
3. alluring – attracting and exciting
4. reward – something that you are given for a good deed
5. belief – a strong feeling that something is true

C. Give one word for the following expressions:
1. The ability to suffer something, especially pain, difficult conditions without being harmed.
2. To fail to have the effect that you had intended.
3. The state of being alone, especailly when you find this pleasant.
4. An attempt to do something especially new or different.
5. A person or thing that represents a typical example of an idea or a quality,
Answer:

  1. Repentance
  2. Unaffected
  3. Solitude
  4. Endeavour
  5. Incarnation

D. Make sentences using the noun forms of the words given below:

1. describe
2. confirm
3. dedicate
4. follow
5. believe
6. consider
7. solve
8. buy
9. active
10. equip
Answer:

  1. Describe—description—Give me a full description of the procedure.
  2. Confirm—confirmation—I have just now got the confirmation letter of my job.
  3. Dedicate—dedication—We should do our job with full dedication.
  4. Follow—follower—Gandhiji was a follower of truth and non-violence.
  5. Believe—belief—I have belief in what I am doing.
  6. Consider—consideration—The matter is currently under consideration.
  7. Solve—solution—I have got a solution to my problem.
  8. Buy—buyers—There is a close relation between the buyers and the seller.
  9. Active—action—Immediate action should be taken to control price-rise.
  10. Equip—equipment—The equipment of the newly established office is very essential.

Comprehension

(a) Choose the correct alternative:

Question 1.
The author of the Gita has insisted on
(a) The use of political efforts to resist war
(b) Futility of physical warfare
(c) The necessity of warfare
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(b) Futility of physical warfare

Question 2.
The second Chapter of the Gita tells us—
(a) About worldly wisdom
(b) Who a perfect man is
(c) About physical warfare
(d) The art of chivalary
Answer:
(b) Who a perfect man is

Question 3.
Man is at peace with himself when he
(a) Becomes a perfect man
(b) Resembles God
(c) Acts according to the Gita
(d) Attains self-realization
Answer:
(d) Attains self-realization

Question 4.
Spiritual ambition means
(a) To get worldy wealth with the help of spirituality
(b) That which is controlled by modern ambition
(c) Very high and lofty ambitions
(d) Working towards spiritual upliftment of the soul.
Answer:
(c) Very high and lofty ambitions

(b) Answer the following questions in one sentence each:

Question 1.
When did Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi first become acquainted with the Gita?
Answer:
Fie first became acquainted with the Gita in 1888-89

Question 2.
What is Krishna in the Gita?
Answer:
Krishna in the Gita is perfection.

Question 3.
What does the future generation pay homage to?
Answer:
The future generation pays hpmage to a legacy of miseries.

Question 4.
How can one be free from action?
Answer:
One can be free from action by surrendering oneself to God, body and soul.

Question 5.
What do all religions proclaim?
Answer:
All religions proclaim that ft is possible for man, by treating the body as the temple of God, to attain freedom.

Question 6.
What is meant by the term ‘action’?
Answer:
The term ‘action’ includes all activity, whether mental or physical.

(c) Answer the following questions in 30-40 words each.

Question 1.
How did the author feel when he first became acquainted with the Gita?
Answer:
When the author first became acquinted with the Gita, he felt that it was not a historical work, but that under the guise of physical warfare, it described the dwel that constantly went on in the hearts of mankind, and that physical warfare was brought in merely to make the description of the internal dwel more attractive and exciting.

Question 2.
What is self-realization?
Answer:
Self-realization is a state of mind in which an individual feels what he is in reality. At this stage he realizes all his good and evil deeds and wills. This is a state of solitude where a man achieves eternity.

Question 3.
What does the author mean by hearts of mankind?
Answer:
Here the author means minor care of a man’s conscience that is extremely internal and pure.

Question 4.
What is renunciation?
Answer:
Renunciation is an act of stating publicly that you no longer believe something or that you are giving something up. In the context of the lesson renunciation means giving up fruits of action.

Question 5.
What is perfect peace?
Answer:
Salvation of the Gita is perfect peace.

Question 6.
Can one attain desirelessness?
Answer:
One can attain desirelessness only by a constant heart churn. Right knowledge is necessary for desirelessness or renunciation. In order.that knowledge may not run riot, the author of the Gita has insisted on devotion accompanying it and has given it the first place.

(d) Answer the following questions in about 150 words each.

Question 1.
What is self-realization?
Answer:
Self-realization is a state of mind in which an individual feels what he is in reality. At this stage he realizes all his good and evil deeds and wills. This is a state of solitude where a man achieves eternity. For example, when the dacoit Angulimal was made to realize his evils by Gautam Buddha, he changed his path and embraced Buddha. This was his self-realization. Similarly, when in the battle of Mahabharata Arjuna declined to initiate war, Lord Krishna showed him the path of self-realization by saying that he was not fighting with his kith and kin but he was fighting with evils. Guru Drona.

Bhishma Pitamah, Kama and all the other opponents were the symbols of evil path because they could not protect the. religion, the diginity of a woman. So, they all were sinners and to punish a sinner is the duty of a true soul. Whether Arjuna would kill them or not, they were destined to die as a punishment whoever punishes would be true soul. Arjuna was chosen by God to punish them. So, he must act. Otherwise he would also be punished for his ignorance. Later, he realized the truth and initiated war.

Question 2.
What are the characterstics of a real devotee?
Answer:
The devotion required by the Gita certainly is not blind faith. The devotion of the Gita has the least to do with externals. A devotee may use, if he likes, roseries, forehead marks;-make offerings, 11 but these things are not test of his devotion. A real devotee is one who is jealous of none, who is a fount of mercy, who is without egotism, who is selfless and who treats alike cold and heat, happiness and misery. A real devotee is ever forgiving and is always contented. His resolutions are firm. He possesses dedicated mind and soul to God.

He causes no dread and is not afraid of others. He is free from excellation, sorrow and fear. He is pure and is versed in action and yet remains unaffected by it. He renounces all fruits, good or bad.He treats friend and foe alike. He is untouched by respect or disrespect. He is not puffed up by praise and does not go under when people speak ill of him. He loves silence and solitude. He has a disciplined reason. Thus, to be a real devotee is to realize oneself.

Question 3.
In the opinion of Mahatma Gandhi, what is the Gita?
Answer:
The Gita, according to Mahatma Gandhi, revolves round self-realization. The object of the Gita appears to Gandhi to be that 1 of showing the most excellent way to attain this self-realization that which is to be found, more or less clearly, spread out here and there in Indian religious books, has been brought out in the clearest possible language in the Gita even at the rise of repetition. This is the centre round which the Gita is woven. This renunciation, as Mahatma Gandhi f says, is the central sun, round which devotion, knowledge and the rest revolve like planets.

The body is just like a prison. There must be action where there is body. Not one embodied being is exempted from labour. And yet all religions proclaim that is is possible for man,by treating the body as the temple of God, to attain freedom. Every action, is tained, be it ever so trivial. Then how can one be free from action, i.e., from the taint of sin? The Gita has answered the question in decisive language. It means that one can be free from action by desireless action,, by renouncing fruits of action by dedicating all activities of God, i.e. by surrendering oneself to Him body and soul.The Gita is, thus a great religious poem. The deeper we dive into it, the richer the meanings we get. It being meant for the people at large.

Question 4.
Explain the Expressions
(i) He who gives up attains ;
(ii) He who gives up only the reward rises.
Answer:
(i) ‘He who gives up attains’ means sacrifice is the way through which one can attain all bliss. Suppose, parents sacrifice their comforts for providing their children a successful life. They attain later. If they bring up their children with all care and axienty, they attain a wonderful peace for having a successful world for their children. But, if they fail to do it, their life becomes a hell, as their children can never succeed and become good citizens.

(ii) He who .gives up only the reward rises We can understand this with the help of the example of Gautam Buddha. This great man had acquired every thing by the bliss of God. He belonged to a royal family. He could have lived his life in great comfort. But he gave up all these royal comforts and left the palace in search of truth. Later on, he attained enlightenment. People bowed before him. He became a world figure. His messages were spread all over the world. This reward rose due to his giving up.

Question 5.
Justify the message given is the Gila in modern context.
Or
How the message of the Gita can help resolving modem day problems? Discuss.
Answer:
The Gita contains messages of self-realization. It was spoken out by Lord Krishna just before the beginning of the great war, called Mahabharata. The moment when Krishna, the charioteer of Arjuna in the Mahabharata, brought him just in the centre of the two opponents, he found Arjuna was confused. All around Arjuna saw his Kith and Kin. He hesitated to fight against Bhishma Pitamah, who had evershadowed the whole of Kaurava dynasty, Guru Drona, who had tanght him with a wish to make him the greatest archer.

Finally, he refused. Then Krishna began to show him the real truth. He told him that there are two powers good and evil peristing in the world all the time. Good people choose a good path, follow the true religion and all the ideals. But bad people choose the evil one and break all the religious ways and ideals. Punishments and rewards are already fixed for all of them.

Good people live in peace and are always blessed by God. But bad people are always impatient and finally they are punished by God. God has already created every situation how, when and where he will punish or reward the recipient. In the war of the Mahabharata, there are two great powers.

The Pandavas, representing the true religion and the Kauravas representing all evils. Lord Krishna is on the side of the Pandavas. For the time being the evil person rejoice their life as they gain in the preliminary stages. Sometimes, they are given opportunity to realize but they don’t care.

After several chances, they are finally punished. For punishing them, one has to take a lead, either, lonely, or collectively. In the present context of the world situation, we see everywhere there is corruption, lowlessness, anarchy and unbearable living situation. Everyday we come across the news of child rapes, human trafficking, riots, etc. The whole system has become disfunctional. Everyone has become individualistic and seeks his own safety and comfort. No body thinks for the society.

Even in the government machinery, there is corruption, nepotism etc. There is a need of Krishna to come and take lead to control the situation. Krishna has said in the Gita, whenever the religion is in danger, I will incarnate and take everything in control’ sometimes ‘ somewhere we see a Krishna saving our society. But in such a large country, we need many Krishnas.

Speaking Activity

(a) Deliver a short speech on the importance of the lessons imparted through different Indian religions books.
Answer:
The lessons imparted through different Indian religious books are of great importance. They teach us high moral values such as tolerance, forbearance, discipline, sympathy etc. These values if incorporated in a peson lead to a modest life. They also teach us to have faith in God and in oneself. They tell us to believe in constant efforts. With determination, confidence and strong will power also sometimes people fail in the assigned work. This is because they did not use proper and continuous efforts to achieve the long cherished accomplishment. Thus, constant efforts untiring efforts should be there.

Different Indian religious books convey a common message of brotherhood, peace, community feeling, etc. We should believe in these values to make our life a worthy one. ‘Live and let live is also an important mess as which these books convey to us.

(b) Discuss Mahatma Gandhi’s contribution towards India under the light of the message given in the Gita.
Answer:
Mahatma Gandhi, whom we call reverently ‘Bapu’ had immense faith in non-violence and tolerance. He always stressed on selfless action. He never allowed himself to use wrong means to attain the right ends. Throughout his life he taught people to have faith in God and themselves. He devoted his life to the service of mankind. People across the world, adore him for his noble ideas and simplicity.

Writing Activity

(a) Write a paragraph on the teachings of the Gita.
Answer:
(i) Material compassion, lamentation and tears are all signs of ignorance of the real self. Compassion for the eternal soul is self-realization.

(ii) He is a miserly man who does not slove the problems of life as a human and who thus quits this world like the cats and dogs, without understanding the science of self-realization. This human form of life is a most valuable asset for the living entity who can utilize it for solving the problems of life, therefore, one who does not utilize this opportunity properly is a miser. On the other hand, there is he who is intelligent enough to utilize this body to slove all the problems of life.

(iii) Since every living entity is an individual soul, each is changing his body every moment, manifesting sometimes as child, sometimes as a‘youth, and sometimes as an old man. Yet the same spirit should be there and does not undergo any change. This individual soul finally changes the body at death and transmigrates to another body; and since it is sure to have another body is the next birth,either material or spiritual there was no cause of lamentation by Arjuna on account of death of his Kith and Kin.

(iv) There is no endurance of the changing body. That the body is changing every moment by the actions and reactions for the different cells is admitted by modern medical science, and thus growth and old age are taking place in the body. But the spirit soul exists permanently, remaining the same despite all changes of the body and the mind. That is the difference between matter and spirit.

(v) Owing to ignorance, one does not know that this material world is a miserable place where there are dangers at every step. Out of ignorance only, less intelligent persons try to adjust to the situation by fruitive activities, thinking that resultant actions will make them happy. They do not know that no kind of material body among anywhere within the universe can give life without miseries. The miseries of life, namely birth, death, old age and diseases, are present everywhere within the material world.

(b) As we know every religion insists on tolerance. Make a list of other noble values fostered by other Indian religions .
Answer:
A list of the noble values fostered by various Indian religious books are:

  1. Compassion
  2. Sympathy
  3. Brotherhood
  4. Perserverance
  5. Optimism
  6. Humaneness
  7. Self-respect
  8. Faith in oneself
  9. Faith in god
  10. Love and kindness

Things to Do

Gather information about some great mythological heroes and share it with your classmates.
Answer:
Do Yourself.

The Gospel of Selfless Action Introduction

Tine passage ‘The Gospel of Selfless Action’ is taken from the writings of Mahatma Gandhi bearing on God, God Realization and the Godly way. He who gives up action falls. He who gives up only reward rises. But renunciation of fruit in no way means indifference to the result. In regard to every action one must know the result that is expected to follow, the means thereto, and capacity for it.

The Gospel of Selfless Action Summary in English

Mahatma Gandhi first became acquainted with the Gita in 1880-89. At that time he felt that it was not a historical work, but that under the guise of physical warfare, it described the duel that always went on in the heart of mankind, and that physical warfare was brought in merely to make the description of the internal duel more attractive and exciting.

The Second chapter of the Gita does not teach the rules of physical warfare. It only tells us how a perfected man is to be known. Krishna in the Gita is perfection. But perfection is imagined. The idea of a perfect incarnation is an after growth, This belief in incarnation is a testimony of man’s lofty spiritual ambition. Self-realization is the subject of the Gita. The object of the Gita appears to Gandhi to be that of showing the most excellent way to attain self-realization. The matchless remedy is renunciation of fruits of action, This is the centre round which the Gita is woven. This renunciation is the central sun, round which devotion, knowledge and the rest revolve like planets.

Our body is just like a prison. There must be action where there is body. Then how can one be free from actions, i.e. from the taint of sin, Its answer lies in the Gita, One can be free from of action by renouncing fruits of action and by surrendering oneself to God/ body and soul. Right knowledge is necessary for attaining renunciation and devotion accompanies it. But the devotion required by the Gita certainly is not blind faith. A true devotee is he who is jealous of none and who is fount of mercy. He is forgiving and is free from excellation,

sorrow and fear. Thus, to be a real devotee is to realize oneself. Our knowledge or devotion cannot buy us either salvation or bondage. The extreme of means is salvation. Salvation of the Gita is perfect peace.
All living beings have to do some work. The Gita says, “Do your allotted work but renounce its fruits be detached and work—have no desire for reward and work.” In regard to every action one must know the result that is expected to follow, the means thereto, and capacity for it. lie, who, being thus equipped, is without desire for the result, and is yet wholly engrossed in the due fulfillment of the taste before him, is said to have renounced the fruits of his action.

The Gospel of Selfless Action Word Meaning

The Gospel of Selfless Action Summary in Hindi

तिहासिक कृति नहीं पाता था और इस प्राकृति के लिए। महात्मा गाँधी सन् 1880-89 में सर्वप्रथम गीता से अवगत हुए। उस समय उन्हें लगा कि यह कोई ऐतिहासिक कृति नहीं थी बल्कि यह प्राकृतिक युद्ध के वेश में मानवजाति के हृदय में सतत् चलने वाले द्वन्द्व को वर्जित करता था और इस प्राकृतिक युद्ध को लाया गया मात्र आन्तरिक द्वन्द्व के वर्णन को और अधिक आकर्षक और उत्तेजक बनाने के लिए था। गीता का दूसरा अध्याय प्राकृतिक युद्ध के नियमों को नहीं बताता है। यह बस यह बताता है कि एक आदर्शपूर्ण व्यक्ति कैसे जाना जाता है। कृष्ण गीता में आदर्श हैं। लेकिन इस आदर्श की कल्पना की गई है। एक आदर्श अवतार का विचार इसके बाद की कल्पना है। अवतार में यह विश्वास आदमी के उदात्त आध्यात्मिक महत्वाकांक्षा का प्रमाण है।

आत्म अनुभूति बोध गीता का विषय है। महात्मा गाँधी के लिए गीता का उद्देश्य आत्मबोध प्राप्त करने के सबसे अच्छे पथ को दिखाना है। कर्म के फल का परित्याग अद्वितीय उपचार है। इसी को केन्द्र में रखकर गीता का ताना-बाना बुना गया है। यह परित्याग केन्द्रीय सूर्य है। जिसके चारों ओर निष्ठा, उपासना, ज्ञान, शेप ग्रहों की तरह चक्कर काटते हैं। हमारा शरीर एक बंदीग्रह की तरह है। जहाँ भी शरीर है, वहीं पर काम/कर्म है। लेकिन प्रत्येक कर्म दूपित है। तब कैसे कोई व्यक्ति कर्म अर्थात् पाप के दोष से अपने को आजाद रख सकता है? इसका उत्तर गीता में हैं। एक व्यक्ति कर्म के फलों का परित्याग करके और स्वयं को ईश्वर के प्रति समर्पित करके कर्म से अर्थात् पाप के दोष से स्वयं को आजाद कर सकता है।

त्याग को प्राप्त करने के लिए सही ज्ञान आवश्यक है और उपासना उसके साथ है। लेकिन जिस श्रद्धा निष्ठा को गीता में आवश्यक बताया गया है वह कोई अँधा विश्वास नहीं है। एक सच्चा उपासक वही होता है जो किसी के प्रति ईर्ष्या नहीं रखता और जो दया का सागर है। वह क्षमाशील है और हर्ष-विपाद से परे है। इस प्रकार सच्चे उपासक के लिए स्वयं का बोध होना आवश्यक है। हमारा ज्ञान या हमारी उपासना न तो मोक्ष को खरीद सकता है न ही दासता -को। गीता का मोक्ष पूर्ण शान्ति है। सभी जीवित प्राणी को कुछ काम करना होता है। गीता में कहा गया है : “जो काम तुम्हें मिला है उसे कर डालो लेकिन फल का त्याग करो। तटस्थ हो और काम करो। फल की इच्छा किए बिना काम करो।”

The Gospel of Selfless Action Some Important Pronunciations

The Gospel of Selfless Action Passages For Comprehension

1. Even in 1888-89, when I first became acquainted with the Gila, I felt that it was not a historical work, but that under the guise of physical warfare, it described the duel that perpetually went on in the hearts of mankind, and that physical warfare was brought in merely to make the description of the internal duel more alluring. This preliminary intuition became more confirmed on a closer study of religion and the Gita. A study of the Mahabharata gave it added confirmation.

Questions
(i) What did Mahatma Gandhi feel when he first became acquainted with the Gita in 1888-89?
(ii) What did the Gita describe?
(iii) Why was physical warfare brought?
(iv) Pick out the word from the above passage that means same as The ability to know something by using your ‘feelings rather than considering the facts’.
Answers
(i) When Mahatma Gandhi first became acquainted with the Gita in 1888-89, he felt that it was not a historical work, but that under the guise of physical warfare.
(ii) The Gita described the duel that always went on in the hearts of mankind.
(iii) Physical warfare was brought in merely to make the description of the internal duel more alluring.
(iv) ‘intuition’.

2. Thus the devotion required by the Gita is no soft-hearted effusiveness. It certainly is not blind faith. The devotion of the Gita has the least to do with externals. A devotee may use, if he likes, rosaries, forehead marks, make offering, but these things are no test of his devotion. He is the devotee who is jealous of none, who is a fount of mercy, who is without egotism, who is selfless, who treats alike cold and heat, happiness and misery, who is ever forgiving, who is always contented, whose resolutions are firm, who has dedicated mind and soul to God, who causes no dread, who in not afraid of others, who is free from exultation, sorrow and fear, who is pure, who is versed in action and yet remains unaffected by it, who renounces all fruits, good or bad, who treats friend and foe alike, who is untouched by respect or disrespect, who is not puffed up by praise, who does not go under when people speak ill of him, who loves silence and solitude, who has disciplined reason.

Questions
(i)  What does a devotee do to testify his devotion?
(ii) Who is a devotee in the true sense of the term?
(iii) How does a true devotee treat friend and foe.
(iv) How does a true devotee react when praised or criticized by someone?
(v) Pick out the word from the above passage which means the same as ‘showing much or too much emotions.’
Answers
(i) A devotee can use rearies, forehead marks, make offerings to testify his devotions.
(ii) A true devotee is jealous of none is without-egotism selfless, contented and remarks affected by happiness and misery.
(iii) A ture devotee treats friend and foe alike.
(iv) He is not puffed up by praise and does not go under when people speak ill of him.
(v) ‘effusiveness’.