MP Board Class 11th English A Voyage Solutions Chapter 10 Mahatma Gandhi (V.S. Srivas Sastri)

MP Board Class 11th English A Voyage Solutions Chapter 10 Mahatma Gandhi (V.S. Srivas Sastri)

Mahatma Gandhi Textual Exercise

Word Power

(a) Now see how they are used:
1. Advise when needed is least heeded, (noun)
2. Advised him to be more careful, (a verb)
Note that advice (noun) does not take article ‘an’ and is not used in plural.
Use the following pairs of words in sentences to bring out the difference:
device/devise, practice/practices
Answer:

  • Device – Harvesting of rainwater is a water saving device. Devise – A new system has been devised to control traffic in city.
  • Practice – He has no practice of speaking English Practise – Practise hard to learn English.

(b) Some words are almost similar in sound but different in meaning or spelling. They are called ‘Homonyoush Example – accept, except He accepted my proposal. Except Mr. Singh, all the teachers attended the meeting.
Now give the meanings of the following words and use them in sentences of your own:
Course – coarse/cease – seize/rever – river.
Answer:

  • Course – way – Rivers often change their courses during floods in rainy seasons.
    Coarse – rough – He is putting on coarse clothes.
  • Cease – to stop – The factory has ceased to making bicycles.
    Seize – take possession of – He seized Mr. Sharma’s goods for payment of debt.
  • Rever – to respect – We should rever great men of the world.
    River – a large natural stream of water – The Ganga is a holy river.

(c) Synonyms is a word with similar meaning:
As common is a synonym of ‘ordinary’
Now find synonyms of the following words from the text of the lesson:
Elated, hard, polite, piousness, clear, continuously.
Answer:

  • Elated – exalted
  • Hard – rigorous
  • Polite – lofty
  • Piousness piety
  • Clear – evident
  • Continuously – constantly.

(d) Find the word from the text for the following expressions:

  • to bring the light something hidden
  • completely
  • find out something new
  • clearly visible
  • great respect and honour for somebody
  • to win over
  • to copy or follow some one
  • effort or hard work
  • to respect someone
  • to cause to change direction Ans.
  • absolutely
  • discover
  • transparent
  • earnest
  • overcome
  • emulate
  • rever
  • swerve.

Comprehension

I. Answer in one sentence each of the following questions:

Question 1.
What is the opposite word for Mahatma as Gandhi used to ascribe to himself?
Answer:
The opposite word for Mahatma as Gandhi used to ascribe to himself is Alpatma.

Question 2.
What did Gandhi subject himself to?
Answer:
Gandhi subjected himself to rigorous self examination.

Question 3.
Is it possible for human nature to reach to the height of Gandhi’s excellence of character? If yes, how?
Answer:
Yes, it is possible for human nature to reach to the height of Gandhi’s excellence of character by following the path shown by him.

Question 4.
What did Gandhi possess as property?
Answer:
Gandhi possessed nothing except the pair of a very coarse Khaddar which he used to put on his body.

Question 5.
What did Gandhi do of the property which he had acquired?
Answer:
All the property which Gandhi had acquired, had beep given away by him.

Question 6.
What did Gandhi and Christ preach equally?
Answer:
‘Forgive thine enemies’.

Question 7.
Do you think that Gandhi was a man of the courage of soul? Give reasons.
Answer:
If Gandhi stood alone in defense of truth, and the whole world were banded against him and against truth, he would still fight them all, no matter if they tire his limb from limb.

Question 8.
How was Gandhi regarded universally?
Answer:
Gandhi was regarded universally by dint of his high and sublime qualities.

Question 9.
What, according to the author, shall we be if we do not know of Gandhi?
Answer:
According to the author we shall be wretched if we do not know of Gandhi.

II. Answer in 30 -40 words each of the following questions:

Question 1.
How did Gandhi subject himself to self-examination?
Answer:
Gandhi subjected himself to rigorous self-examination. He would ask himself often during the day if he had said or done or thought anything which was unworthy. And if in course of that examination he discovered some failing, some lapse on his part, he prayed to the Almighty that he would be saved in future from similar failings and lapses.

Question 2.
Do you find some difference between self-examination and self-condemnation? If yes, how?
Answer:
There is a difference between self-examination and self- condemnation. Self-examination is the way to transformation through analysing one’s own character. It is a positive attitude. Self-condemnation is a negative altitude. One condemns oneself for what one does. It does not mean that it would bring any change in one’s character.

Question 3.
What kind of courage did Gandhi possess?
Answer:
Gandhi possessed a remarkable quality of courage. In Gandhi’s .. case courage doesn’t mean physical courage or strength. But it means the courage of the soul which helps one to defend one’s opinion in the face of overwhelming odds.

Question 4.
Write a short note on Gandhi’s universal significance?
Answer:
Gandhi was one of the rare personalities who achieved a unique universal significance. It was his virtue, courage, moral strength and other sublime qualities that made him universal regarded as a great soul.

Question 5.
Explain ‘piety’ who, according to the author, is a man of piety?
Answer:
‘Piety’ is a divine quality. It is not an outer quality but it dwells in the innermost recesses of our hearts. When one has troubles and difficulties and anxious questions appear in one’s mind and one doesn’t know to which way to turn, one becomes a man of piety because at this hour he finds solution in his prayer to god.

Question 6.
What are the words used for ‘forgiveness’ in the lesson?
Answer:
The words used for ‘forgiveness’ in the lesson are: kshama, tolerance, charitable dealing and charitable thought towards others.

III. Answer the following questions in 150 words each:

Question 1.
On what virtues does the greatness of Gandhi rest?
Answer:
Gandhi was given the name ‘Mahatma’ and h” really deserves it. His life was the life of an ordered man of high conduct and sacrifice. He was a rare personality. He subjected himself to rigorous self-examination. Every day he examined himself to see whether he had done or thought anything unworthy. Everyday he made a prayer to god asking him to keep him away from such lapses. This process of self-examination made him all perfect. He lived his life in a godly way. His perfect purity, his transparent honesty and his.evident sincerity were matchless.

Gandhi’s unselfishness was also rare. He owned nothing except the pair of a very coarse Khaddar which he used to put on his body. He had given away all the property which he acquired. He had immense courage. The courage which he practised was not physical but it was the courage of the soul. This courage of the soul helped him to defend his opinion in the face of overwhelming odds. The other remarkable feature of Gandhi was the quality of forgiveness which applies to tolerance, charitable dealing and charitable thought towards others. Gandhi preached, “Forgive their enemies.” The above mentioned virtues made Gandhi the rarest of the rare. He was really a man with a great soul. His greatness is matchless.

Question 2.
What is meant by self-examination? How did Gandhi practice it?
Answer:
Self-examination means to examine oneself to see whether one has done or thought anything unworthy. It is a rare quality which is found rarely in human beings. But Mahatma Gandhi was not a simple Human being. He was the rarest of the rare who subjected himself to rigorous selfexamination. Everyday he examined himself to see whether he had done or thought anything unworthy. Everyday he made a prayer to God asking him to keep him far away from such lapses. This process of self-examination left a tremendous effect on Gandhi. He made him an almost perfect man. He always lived in a godly way but always called himself a sinner. His perfect purity, his transparent honesty and his evident sincerity were really matchless. He always tried to save himself from stray tendencies, fleeting temptations because he always felt that these negative aspects of life lead to grievous sin.

Question 3.
‘Forgiveness is divine’ prove it on the basis of your study?
Answer:
The writer has explained the virtue of forgiveness in detail. Forgiveness i.e. ‘kshama,’ as called by our ancients stands for tolerance, charitable dealing and charitable thought towards others. If one contemplates other’s sins, their failings or their treacherous behaviour, one thinks of how to forget and forgive. Some of us do it, occasionally. Some do it once in a lifetime. Some make it a habit. Gandhi had a different opinion for it. He doesn’t mind this act with our kins or close relatives. He says to forgive our enemies, as Jesus Christ has preached, love their enemies, forgive their enemies.’ Though it appears to be very easy but it is so difficult that only a few succeed in this attempt. Gandhi was one of those rarest of the rare. It is a divine quality.

Question 4.
Differentiate between ‘physical courage’ and ‘courage of the soul’. What does Gandhi stands for?
Answer:
‘Physical courage’ and ‘courage of the soul’ are two different virtues. Physical courage means bodily strength, robustness which makes one able to fight, or resist against ones enemies. But a courageous man is not he who calls someone to fight, a courageous man is necessarily he who against two or three antagonists in the foot field field carries the ball through into the goal

It is physical courage. On the other hand courage of soul is one that helps one defend one’s opinion in the face of overwhelming odds. He must have the confidence to say that if he stands alone in defence of truth and the whole world were banded against him and against truth, he wanted still fight them all without caring any damage to himself. This is the real courage-courage of the soul rather than the physical courage. Gandhi had a tremendous kind of such courage.

Question 5.
In what way was Gandhi a man of piety?
Answer:
Piety is one of the most significant virtues that Gandhi possessed. In fact, a pious man is not he who merely goes to the temple and gives away large part of his wealth in charity. This is piety above and beyond these doctrines which does not need any outward expression. It is in our inner being. When ever Gandhi was in trouble, he closed himself in a quite room to retreat and seek the solitude of midnight. He sat there in the solemn silence of the moment.

God in the most earnest tones. The writer finds that no one can do such a thing unless he had the fullest and the strongest faith in the living presence of God and had always enjoyed his intimate relationship or companionship. Gandhi had felt for a number of times, as the writer says, the guidance of God.Due to that no amount of persuasion, no entreaty, no threat would make him swerve a hair’s breadth from his course. Gandhi was a real man of piety.

Question 6.
Enumerate in short the qualities of Gandhi as found in the lesson.
Answer:
In the lesson ‘Mahatma Gandhi’ the writer exposes Gandhi’s qualities as a man. Some of them are his qualities of self-examination, his complete selfishness, his forgiveness, his inner courage and his piety. While talking about his self-examination the writer says that Gandhi subjected himself to rigorous self-examination everyday by asking himself if he had said or done or thought anything which was unworthy.

If in the course of examination he discovered some failing, some lapse on his part, he prayed most humbly to God to save him in future from similar failings or lapses. In this sense, he was perfect man.Gandhi’s selflessness was known to all. He owned nothing except the pair of very coarse Khaddar which he used to put on his body. All the property which he acquired, he had given away.

Another remarkable virtue in him was the quality of forgiveness. He used to say, “forgive there enemies.” He was a rare personality who possessed the courage of the soul. In his opinion only this courage helps one to defend one’s opinion in the face of overwhelming odds.Gandhi was a man of piety. His rare qualities made him universally regarded as a great soul.

IV. Choose the correct alternative:

(a) Gandhi proved his title to be regarded as a Mahatma because:
(i) the people gave him the title of Mahatma.
(ii) he was a saint.
(iii) he gave up all what he had.
(iv) he called himself ‘Alpatma’ and begged his friends not to call him Mahatma.
Answer:
(iii) He gave up all what he had.

(b) A man should be judged by:
(i) the opinions he holds.
(ii) His conduct and character.
(iii) The doctrine he espouses.
(iv) The opinion people have of him.
Answer:
(ii) His conduct and character.

(c) Gandhi called himself a sinner because:
(i) he condemned outward lapses.
(ii) he condemned lapses of thought.
(iii) he used to test himself most severely.
(iv) he was a victim of fleeting temptations.
Answer:
(iii) he used to test himself most severely.

(d) People are great on account of their practice of:
(i) self consciousness
(ii) self assessment
(iii) self examination
(iv) self punishment.
Answer:
(iii) self examination

(e) Gandhi is called unselfish because:
(i) he devoted some time of his life to the welfare of the community.
(ii) he gave a part of his wealth to some objects of public charity.
(iii) in every matter and at every moment of his life he lived only for others, thought only for others and worked only for others.
(iv) he wore a very coarse Khaddar cloth on his body:
Answer:
(iii) in every matter and at every moment of his life he lived only for others, thought only for others and worked only for others.

Grammar

I. See Textbook pages 73 – 74
Now:
1. Write five words each beginning with the above negative prefixes.
2. Search from the text any other words (leaving aside the words already quoted) that have negative prefixes.
3. Use one of the above-mentioned prefixes to make negatives of the following words:
Honesty, approve, charitable, dote, truth, pious.
Answer:

  1. anti-anti-clockwise, anti-body, anti-social, anti-viral, anti-climax. De-decode, devalue, deform, defame, demoralize. Dis-dishonest, disrespect, dishonour, dislike, disappear, in-improper, immature, immortal, impolite, impossible. Non-non-sense, non-gazetted, non-vegetarian, non-violent, non-co¬operation.
    Un-unhappy, unlike, undo, unnatural, unable.
  2. Some other words that have negative prefixes:
    Unworthy, unselfish, unaware, unarmed, undefended, disarm.
  3. honesty-dishonesty approve-disapprove charitable-uncharitable
    dote-undote truth-untruth pious-impious.

II. Learning Modals:
(See Textbook pages 74 – 75)
Given below are sentences with would, must, should, ought to and needn’t it. Find the modality of each.
1. Would you please lend me your pen? .
2. I would rather have a jacket than a coat.
3. Mr. Gautam promised that he would do the work for me.
4. You must not walk in the middle of a road.
5. You need not pay income tax. You are a senior citizen now.
6. They must have caught the train.
7. One must not forget oneself.
8. People should not smoke in public places.
9. Mr. Shukla should have consulted a lawyer.
10. You forget to touch the feet of your grandfather. You ought to have done so.
11. Your neighbour ought to respect your feelings.
12. People ought to stand up when the national anthem is being sung.
13. She needn’t undergo the operation. I will cure her by oral therapy.
14. I didn’t need to wait for the guests. They arrived in time.
Answer:

  1. polite request.
  2. a liking, a wish (with or without‘like’) in sense of ‘want to’.
  3. indirect speech.
  4. negative command or order.
  5. advise in general with no external obligation.
  6. conjecture, strong possibility or certainty.
  7. negative command or order.
  8. speaker’s personal opinion regarding duty, general advice with on suggestion of actual or possible transgression, advisability, desirability. .
  9. unfulfilled obligation (an act which should have been done, but not done).
  10. non-fulfillment of a sensible action in the past.
  11. advisability, desirability in the matters of conscience.
  12. advice regarding duty or a sensible action.
  13. advice in general.
  14. advice in general.

Speaking Activity

Suppose you

A. Who ……… ?
B ……… our father of nation. Can you tell me when ?
A ……… on October 2, 1869.
A. ……… What father’s name?
B. His ………was Karam Chand Gandhi
B. What ………name?
A. Mohand as Gandhi.
A. ……… What gives us.
B ……… freedom from the British rule.
A ……… weapons did he fight against the British in India?
B. ……… of Truth, Ahimsa and Satyagrah.
Answer:
A. Who is our father of nation?
B. Mahatma Gandhi is our father of nation. Can you tell me when he was born?
A. He was born on October 2, 1869.
A. Wirat was his father’s name?
C. His father’s name was Karam Chand Gandhi.
B. What was his name?
A. His name was Mohandas Gandhi.
A – What did he gives us.
B. He gave us freedom from the British rule.
A. With which weapons did he fight against the British in India?
B. He fought against the British with weapons of Truth, Ahimsa and Satyagrah.

Writing Activity

I. Read the lesson ‘Sister Nivedita’ in the book. It is her biographical sketch. Can this lesson on Mahatma Gandhi be called a biographical sketch? If not, why? Write a brief biographical sketch ‘ of M.K. Gandhi (in about 150 words).
Answer:
No. it is not a biographical sketch. It is just an exposition of Gandhi’s qualities as a man. The writer nowhere gives any details or hints about his birth, percentage, education and career. Here, is a brief biographical sketch of M.K. Gandhi.

Mahatma Gandhi was born at Porbandar in Kathiawar (Gujarat) in the year of 1869 on 2nd October. His father, Kaba Gandhi was the Diwan of Rajkot State. His mother was a noble and pious lady. At the age of seven he was sent to school. At school he proved himself to be only an average boy. He was always regular and punctual in his class.

After passing his Matriculation Examination he studied at college. Then he went to England to study law.He started his practice at Bombay. But he did not do well. Then he went to Rajkot. He was not a successful lawyer.He went to Africa to conduct a big law suit in a court. There he saw the , bad condition of Indians. He put up are brave fight for their rights. He founded Natal Indian Congress. He was jailed with his friends. In, 1914 the Indian Relief Act was passed.

This bettered the lot of Indians. Gandhi returned to India. He joined the Congress. He became its leader. Under his leadership the congress started non-violence and the non-cooperation movements to oppose the unjust acts of the British Government. Side by side he did constructive work-the removal of untouchability and the Hindu-Muslim Unity. At last India became free on the 15th of August 1947. Gandhiji’s end came all of a sudden. He was shot dead by a thoughtless Youngman. He died on 30th January, 1948.

Think it Over

Question 1.
Study the influence of Mahatma Gandhi on the life of Nelson f Mandela.
Answer:
Attempt yourself.

Question 2.
Gather material about Gandhi’s life in South Africa.
Answer:
Do it yourself.

Question 3.
In a world beset with strife, Satyagraha has more relevance today than it had during Mahatma Gandhi’s time,” Kenneth Kaunda. Discuss the comment with your friends.
Answer:
Do it yourself.

Things To Do

I. In the following table some words are given under column ‘A’. Now make noun, verb and adjective forms for each of them. Some of the words may not have all the forms.

II. Write these incidents in chronological order:
1. The Dandi March was like a pilgrimage that, took twenty- four days to complete the 300 Km. long journey.
2. Jawaharlal Nehru, in his message to the nation said with his chocked voice, “The light has gone out of our life and there is darkness all around”.
3. Gandhiji stayed in South Africa for 21 years. During this period he incessantly worked for the right of the Indians there.
4. After he was shot dead, he was cremated on the banks of the river Yamuna in Delhi.
5. His fame will never die. His knowledge, his actions and his preachings will continue to guide us for centuries.
Answer:

  1. Gandhiji stayed in South Africa for 21 years. During this period he incessantly worked for the right of the Indians there.
  2. The Dandi March was like a pilgrimage that took twenty-four days to complete the 300 Km. long journey.
  3. After he was shot dead! he was cremated on the banks of the river Yamuna in Delhi.
  4. Jawaharlal Nehru, in his message to the nation said with his chocked voice, “The light has gone out of our life and there is darkness all around”.
  5. His fame will never die. His knowledge, his actions and his preachings will continue to guide us for centuries.

III. Events reflect the character. What incidents/events of- Gandhi’s life do you remember when you talk about these qualities.
1. dignity of labour.
2. faith in non-violence.
3. truthfulness.
4. concern for the poor.
5. belief in secularism.
6. belief in swadeshi.
Answer:
Do it yourself with the help of your teacher.

IV. Read the poem ‘Psalm of Life’ by W.H. Longfellow. The poem says how: ‘lives of all great men remind us to make our lives sublime”.
Answer:
Attempt yourself.

Mahatma Gandhi Summary in English

It is a pen portrait of Mahatma Gandhi who has called so far being a man with great soul. Though he never liked to be called so. He himself considered to be “Alpatma” not Mahatma. Still he was given this name. It was for the reason that he really deserves it. He has a life of an ordered man high conduct and sacrifice. Gandhi was a rare personality who constantly subjected himself to rigorous self examination. Everyday he examined himself to see whether hip had done or thought anything unworthy. Everyday he made a prayer to God asking him to save him from such lapses.

His process of self examination made him all perfect. He was very modest and lived his life constantly in a godly way, still he called himself a sinner which we just can’t believe for his perfect purity, his transparent honesty and his evident sincerity were superb. He believed in character as white and transparent as god. Stray tendencies, fleeting temptations, as he felt, always lead to grievous sin. Self-examination was his way of self condemnation.

Gandhi was absolutely without self. His unselfishness was not simply parting one’s interest, wealth or life for others. For Gandhi there was no self. From his point of view, no one is really unselfish unless he always put aside his life and in every matter and at every moment of his life lives for others, think only for others and exists himself of all his wealth.

Whatever Gandhi owned in this world was expect the pair of a very coarse Khaddar which he wore on his body. Everything he owned he sacrificed in the name of nation. He was a regular sanyasi. He never cared for himself. His real happiness was the joy and contentment of the mass. All the time he devoted in thinking for others. This was the true doctrine of unselfishness.

The other remarkable feature of Gandhi was the quality of forgiveness which appears to tolerance, charitable dealing and charitable thought towards others. Gandhi was of the view that it is not a difficult job to forgive someone who is very close to us or who is our kith and kin. But it is little bit difficult to forgive our enemies.

Mahatma Gandhi says, “Forgive there enemies” which is one of the teachings of Jesus-Christ. ‘Love there enemies, ‘forgive there enemies’ is the doctrine of forgiveness. There is no one not even one- in a million who succeeds in practicing it. It is a rare quality displayed only by a rare

Mahatma Gandhi Summary in Hindi

यह महात्मा गाँधी, जिन्हें महान आत्मा वाला व्यक्ति कहा जाता था, का शब्द चित्र है। उन्होंने कभी-भी स्वयं को महान आत्मा वाला व्यक्ति नहीं माना। उन्होंने हमेशा अपने को अल्पात्मा कहा। इसके बावजूद उन्हें यह नाम दिया गया। इसके पीछे कारण यह था कि वे वास्तव में इसके योग्य थे। उनका जीवन काफी संचत था। उनके जीवन में उच्च आचरण और त्याग का समावेश था। गाँधीजी दुर्लभ व्यक्तित्व वाले व्यक्ति थे। उन्होंने अपने जीवन को कड़ी आत्म-परीक्षण का विषय बना लिया था। वे प्रतिदिन स्वयं का परीक्षण करते यह जानने के लिए कि उन्होंने कहीं कुछ गलत तो नहीं किया या गलत-विचार तो मन में नहीं लाया। प्रतिदिन वे ईश्वर से प्रार्थना करते कि वे उन्हें ऐसी खामियों से बचाए रखे।

आत्म-परीक्षण के इस तरीके ने उन्हें पूर्ण व्यक्ति बना दिया था। वह बहुत सरल और विनीत थे और ईश्वरीय तरीके से अपने जीवन को जीने में विश्वास करते थे। इसके बावजूद वे स्वयं को पापी कहा करते थे। जिस पर हमें जरा भी विश्वास नहीं होता क्यों कि उनकी पवित्रता में जो पूर्णता थी, उनकी ईमानदारी में जो निश्छलता थी और उनकी कर्मठता में जो दृढ़ता थी, वे उत्तम कोटि की थी। वे वैसे चरित्र में विश्वास करते थे। जो ईश्वर के समान सफेद और पारदर्शक हो। भटकते विचारों, क्षणभंगूर लालच, जैसे कि वे महसूस करते थे, हमेशा मानव को गंभीर पाप की ओर उन्मुख करते हैं। आत्म-परीक्षण आत्मनिंदा का उनका तरीका था।

गाँधी जी स्वयं रहित थे। उनकी नि:स्वार्थता का मतलब अपना धन या जीवन दूसरे के हवाले करना नहीं था। गाँधी जी के लिए कोई ‘स्वयं’ नहीं था। उनके विचार में कोई भी तबतक नि:स्वार्थ नहीं है जबतक कि वह अपना ‘स्वयं’ अपने से दूर नहीं रखता है और प्रत्येक विषय में और जीवन के हर क्षण में दूसरों के लिए नहीं जीता है, दूसरों के लिए नहीं सोचता है और अपनी पूरी दौलत दूसरों के लिए नहीं खत्म करता है। गाँधी के पास अगर कुछ था तो वह था मोटा खद्दर का एक जोड़ा जिसे वे हमेशा अपने शरीर पर धारण किया करते थे। उन्होंने जो कुछ भी अर्जित किया राष्ट्र के नाम न्योछावर कर दिया। वे एक सन्यासी थे। उन्होंने कभी-भी अपनी परवाह नहीं की। उनकी वास्तविक खुशी तमाम लोगों की खुशी और संतुष्टि में निहित थी।

वे हमेशा दूसरों के बारे में सोचा करते थे। यही नि:स्वार्थता का सच्चा सिद्धांत था। गाँधी की दूसरी महत्वपूर्ण विशेषता यह थी कि उनमें क्षमाशीलता गुण-भरा हुआ था। क्षमाशीलता का मतलब होता है दूसरों के प्रति धैर्यवान होना तथा उदार व्यवहार और उदार विचार रखना। गाँधी के विचार में अपने सगे-संबंधी को क्षमा कर देना कोई मुश्किल काम नहीं है लेकिन अपने दुश्मनों को माफ करना थोड़ा मुश्किल काम अवश्य है। महात्मा गाँधी कहते हैं, “अपने दुश्मनों को माफ कर दो.” जो ईसा मसीह के उपदेशों में से एक हैं। ‘अपने दुश्मनों को प्यार करो, अपने दुश्मनों को माफ करो’ क्षमाशीलता का सिद्धांत है। कोई भी ऐसा नहीं है, शायद लाखों में से एक भी नहीं, जो क्षमाशीलता के इस सिद्धांत को अपनाता। यह एक दुर्लभ गुण है, जो गाँधी जैसे दुर्लभ व्यक्तित्व द्वारा ही प्रदर्शित हो सकता है।

गाँधी को अथाह साहस था। जिस साहस को उन्होंने अपनाया था वह शारीरिक साहस नहीं था, बल्कि यह आत्मा का साहस था। केवल यही साहस एक व्यक्ति को विपरीत परिस्थितियों में भी अपने विचारों पर अड़े रहने में मदद कर सकता है। गाँधीजी ने बहुत-सी विकट स्थितियों का सामना किया बिना किसी नुकसान के वे सही मायने में साहस की मूर्ति थे। उनमें मधुर शब्दों के सहारे घृणा को खत्म करने का गुण था। गाँधी की दूसरी विशेषता थी उनकी धर्मपरायणता! यह गुण उनके चरित्र का सबसे महत्वपूर्ण गुण था। यह हमेशा उनकी अंतरात्मा में विद्यमान रहती थी। जब कभी भी वे उलझनों और कठिनाइयों में फंसे. वे शांतचित होकर बैठ जाते थे और भगवान को बहुत ही विनीत स्वर में संबोधित करते थे।

ईश्वर की जीवंत उपस्थिति में उन्हें अगाध विश्वास था। उनके जीवन में ऐसे बहुत से मौके आए जब उन्होंने ईश्वर को अपने अंदर आहवान किया और उनसे (भगवान से) उनका मार्गदर्शन मांगा और उन्होंने (गाँधी को) भगवान से मार्गदर्शन मिला भी। उन्होंने स्वयं और भगवान के बीच किसी को आने की कभी अनुमति नहीं दी। गाँधी दुर्लभों में दुर्लभ थे। हम सभी अपना चरित्र ऊँचा उटाने के लिए गाँधी के सिद्धांतों का अनुकरण करने की कोशिश करते हैं। उन्हें केवल अपने देश में ही महान आत्मा वाला व्यक्ति नहीं माना जाता है वरन् जर्मनी और इंग्लैण्ड जैसे देशों में भी। आएँ गाँधी को आदर करें और उनके द्वारा दिखाए गए रास्ते पर चलने की कोशिश करें।

Mahatma Gandhi Word Meaning

  

Mahatma Gandhi Comprehension

Read the following passages and answer the questions that follow:-
1. The term Mahatma great soul. So, the phrase Mahatma Gandhi means Gandhi, the great soul. At first he repudiated the title and begged his friends not to call him so. Sometimes, in the midst of severe disappointments, when people called him by that exalted title he said emphatically, ‘I do not wish that you should give me that honour any more. I am the opposite of Mahatma I am Alpatma’. But by this very act, he has became great by reason of the way in which he has ordered his life. A man is to be judged by his conduct and character, and not merely by the opinion he holds or even the doctrine to which he devotes his life, and the title of Mahatma rests on the greatness which he has won by his lofty character.’

Questions:
(i) What does the term ‘Mahatma’ mean? Who has been talked about as ‘Mahatma’?
(ii) What was Gandhi’s response when people called him ‘Mahatma’ ?
(iii) How is a man judged?
(iv) Pick out words from the above passage which are similar in meaning to
a. refused
b. noble
Answers:
(i) The term Mahatma means a great soul. Mahatrha Gandhi has been talked about as‘Mahatma’.
(ii) When people called him Mahatma, Gandhiji told that he was the opposite of Mahatma. He was Alpatma.
(iii) A man is judged by his conduct and character and not merely by the opinion he holds.
(iv) (a) repudiated
(b) lofty.

2. He owns nothing in this world except the pair of a very coarse Khaddar which he wears on his body. He has not even a store of these things at home. All the property amounting to several lakhs which he acquired, he has given away. Not an Anna now belong to him. He is a regular sanyasi going about only in the clothing that is on him. Mr. Gandhi does not care for himself but gives all his time for the saving of the souls of other people. That is to say, such happiness as he still wants, such joy, such satisfaction as he still needs in life he wants only through promoting the joy and the happiness of others about him. If through that exertion happiness»comes to him, let it come.

Questions:
(i) Whom does ‘he’ refer to in these lines? What did he own?
(ii) What did he do to all the property which he acquired?
(iii) What type of happiness did he want?
(iv) Pick out words from the above passage which are similar in meaning to
(a) rough
(b) earned
(c) contentment
(d) wealth.
Answer
(i) ‘He’ refers to Mahatma Gandhi in these lines. He owned nothing except the pair of coarse Khaddar which he used to put on his body.
(ii) He gave away all the property which he acquired.
(iii) He wanted to fill the life of others with joy and happiness: He strove for it throughout his life. He felt happy when he made others happy.
(iv) (a) coarse
(b) acquired
(c) satisfaction
(d) property.

3. ‘What is the good of forgiving those whom you love?’ Suppose your son misbehaves towards you, or your father one day in his anger is unduly severe to you, it is no great virtue to forgive them. Suppose a brother of you does you some harm, and you say, ‘Never mind, you are my brother, I let you go/ there is no great virtue in that. The difficulty is when you have to forget the son of your enemies. If your dayadhi who has always hated you, does you some fresh injury and you forgive that, it is a real act of forgiveness. It is that which the Mahatma preaches. He says, ‘Forgive thine enemies,’ which is one of the teachings of Jesus Christ. ‘Love thine enemies forgive thine enemies’ is the doctrine of forgiveness taken to its last point of development. It is very easy to say so, but I may tell you from long experience that it is one of the most difficult lessons to learn this lesson that you should love your enemies.

Questions:
(i) What is not a difficult job?
(ii) When does the difficulty arise?
(iii) What is a real act of forgiveness?
(iv) What did Mahatma Gandhi and Jesus Christ preach equally?
(v) What is one of the most difficult lessons to learn?
(vi) Pick out words from the above passage which are opposite in meaning to
(a) vice
(b) remember
(c) friends.
Answers:
(i) To forgive those whom we love is not a difficult job.
(ii) The difficulty arises whom we have to forget the sins of our enemies.
(iii) If one’s dayadhi who has always hated you, does one some fresh injury and one forgives that, it is a real act of forgiveness.
(iv) Both preached equally, forgive thine enemies.
(v) The lesson to love our enemies is one of the most difficult lessons to learn.
(vi)
(a) virtue
(b) forget
(c) enemies.

4. It is man of that kind whom you are asked now and then to think of, in order to raise the character of your own lives. It is good now and then for you, to have heard of his great name, to have heard praise of his high qualities, to have heard some description, however faint and indistinct, of the sublime qualities that make him universally regarded as a great soul. For it is not only in India we call him a great soul but also in Germany and England even in far away America, he has been described as one of the world’s greatest men alive. Are we not lucky to be his countrymen? How wretched we should be if we did not know of him and revere him even in a remote fashion, try to be like him!

Questions:
(i) What are we asked now and then and why?
(ii) What made Gandhi universally regarded as a great soul?
(iii) How are we lucky?
(iv) What shall we be if we do not know of Gandhi?
(v) Pick out words from the above passage which are similar in meaning to
(a) admire
(b) fortunate
(c) distant.
Answers:
(i) We are asked now and then to think of Gandhi in order to raise the character of our own lives.
(ii) Gandhi’s sublime qualities made him universally regarded as a great soul.
(iii) We are lucky because we belong to the country where Gandhi was born.
(iv) We shall be wretched if we do not know Of Gandhi.
(v) (a) praise
(b) lucky
(c) remote.

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