MP Board Class 11th English A Voyage Solutions Chapter 18 King Porus – A Legend of Old (Michael M. Dutta)
King Porus – A Legend of Old Textual Exercises
(a) The poet has used a figure of speech simile in abundance throughout the poem. A simile is a departure from the ordinary form of expression in order to produce a greater effect. In a simile a comparison is made between two objects of different kinds which have however at least one point in common. The simile is usually introduced by such words as like, as or so. Here are some examples from 1st 14 lines.
- The lightning flashed bright dazzling, like Fair, woman’s glance from neath her veil.
- Came in stealthy step of death, came as the tiger, noiseless, slow,
- This war of elements, was nurst
Like to an earthquake in the womb of a volcano, deep and low. Reread the stanzas that follow and pick all the simile’s that appear in the poem and explain them in your own words bringing out the similar features/characteristics of the two things being compared.
Some of the examples of simile in the poem are the following:
|Line from the poem||Object compared with|
|Like a Himala-peak||King’s towering personality compared with Himalayan peak.|
|And like the angry winds that blow||The terrific fight of the army is compared with the stormy wind.|
|Like to a lion-chained||King Porus is compared with lion.|
(b) The poet has beautifully woven In a number of adjectives as epithets to bring out the quality of the noun it is used for. Explain the following expressions in sentences of your to bring out their meaning.
Troubled air, moaning sound, unsuspecting sons, heedless slumber, stealthy step, dreadful yell, gory altar, hardy sons, regal diadem, angry winds, burning gaze, lashing billows, gaping wounds, noble blood, generous rival, flittering crowd.
- Troubled air—(unfavourable situation): He faced the troubled air bravely.
- Moaning sound—(worried): There was a moaning sound in my neighbourhood and so I went there.
- Unsuspecting sons—(doubtless loyalty): His army-men were unsuspecting sons.
- Heedless Slumber—(sound sleep): There were in heedless slumber.
- Stealthy Step—(secretly): The criminals entered the house with stealthy step.
- Dreadful Yell-(fearful cry): He made a dreadful yell when he saw a tiger.
- Gory Altar-(after covered with blood): Jesus was crucified on a gory altar.
- Hardy Sons-( rigorous men): India has produced so many hardy sons.
- Regal Diadem-(a special crown): Alexander was wearing a regal diadem.
- Angry Winds-(stormy situation): Sometimes we have to face angry winds in life.
- Burning Gaze-(fiery look): King Porus had a burning gaze in his – eyes.
- Lashing Billows-(stormy waves): King was not affected by the lashing billows of enemies.
- Gaping Wounds-(big injuries): He got many gaping wounds in the battle.
- Noble Blood-(high decency): He belongs to a noble blood.
- Generous Rival-(open hearted enemy): Alexander proved himself to be a generous rival.
- Flittering Crewd-(curios audience): The flittering crowd was amazed to see Alexander’s decision.
(A) Write answer to the following questions in three or four sentences:
How does the poet describe the heroic King Porus in the battle-field?
The heroic King Porus was like a lion. He was full of triumphant feeling. He was fiery and brave in his fight.
What did Alexander do when he saw Porus fighting on with his gaping wounds?
Alexander was really great. When he saw gaping wounds of King Porus bleeding, he cried, “Desist-desist! such noble blood should not be shed.
Porus is compared to a chained lion as he walks to the Macedonian King. What qualities of Porus is the poet trying to highlight?
The poet is trying to highlight Porus’s tremendous qualities. Porus was brave and confident. He faught with all his might to save his kingdom. His personality overpower all. He was the real king.
Why does the poet says ‘Thus India’s crown was lost and won’? Explain.
The poet glorifies India’s winning culture. Indian army faced the enemy with all bravery without caring their own self. However they were defeated. But the’confidence of King Porus made Alexander feel that he was not a coward. Alexander at last honoured king Porus and returned his kingdom with all praise.
What quality of Alexander is also inherent in his act of forgiveness?
Alexander’s act of forgiveness proves that he was a man of great soul. He himself was brave and knew how to honour bravery. He was a considerate person. He realized King Poms’ greatness.
(B) Explain the following stanzas in your own words:
“but, Ind! thy unsuspecting sons did heedless slumber,
while the foe came in stealthy step of death.”
These lines highlight the glorious situation and the life of the people of -Ind. It was carefree and people enjoyed heedless slumber. But in the midst of this heedless slumber, Ind was attacked by Alexander.
But dauntlessly there stood King Porus, towering midst the toe,
Like a Himala-peak with its eternal crown of snow.
These lines highlight the towering personality of King Porus. He was brave. He was at all worried or fearful even among the enemies. He was full of confidence and standing like a Himalayan peak with his eternal glory.
Tho ‘thousands’ round him closed,
He stood-as stands the ocean rock
Amids the lashing billows
Unmoved at their fierce thundering shock.
These lines highlight King Porus’s character. He was courageous. He was’standing like ocean rock admist the lashing billows. He was quiet and unmoved. Even in the enemies’ camp. His presence was like a fierce thundering shock for the enemies.
‘How should I treat thee?’ asked the mighty king of Macedon,
‘Ev’n as a king,’ replied
In royal pride, Ind’s haughty son.
These lines highlight the confidence of King Porus who replied Alexander very bravely. When Alexander asked him how he should be treated, without being perturbed he replied; that he should be treated as a king. It shows his royal pride.
A legend is a story from ancient stories about events and people which may and may not be true A legendary figure is a person who is talked about by many people in a way which shows admiration. The poet calls the poem ‘a Legend of old’ find out other meanings of the word legend and hold a discussion in the class about the poem as a legend. Discuss the following points:
1. What is a legend?
2. Is the poem correctly titled as a legend?
3. Is it a true legend?
4. Does it describe historical facts or its poets imagination only?
Work in groups and share your points with the class in a speech form (five minutes for each group)
(a) What is the rhyming scheme of the poem. Working with the first stanza onwards see if the poet has maintained it throughout the poem. If there is a deviation point it out.
There is no regular rhyme-scheme in the poem except at a few places which can’t be called a rhyme scheme.
(b) The poet says that the Tempest in the war of elements was nothing as compared to what followed the next morning compare the two stanzas and how they describe the two happenings.
The two incidents that happeped later after the midnight tempest were the fight between the two armies Alexander’s troupe attacked the md’s kingdom. The poet describes it as a deadly scene with thundering,
roaring and dazzling. Alexander’s army defeated King Porus. Later King Porus was brought before Alexander. Porus was not at all fearful. He faced Alexander confidently. He stood there like a Himalayan peak. When Alexander asked him how he should be treated, he replied that he should be treated the a king.
(c) The third stanza describes the milk-white Elephant and Porus fighting his enemy explain the scene in your words bringing out the beauty of epithets used by the poet.
The scene of the battlefield has been described with enough of epithets. King Porus was standing like a Himalayan peak wearing eternal crown of snow which symbolizes his grand stature and glorious personality. His mille while elephant was decorated with many brilliant gems. They were fighting bravely like angry winds. All heroic qualities have been shown in King Porus.
Thinks To Do
(A) Read the following poem by Alfred Tennyson and mark the simplicity and depth of emotions. Compare and write a critical appreciation in a paragraph. Based on the following points.
1. Central idea of the poem.
2. What qualities of war heroes are these poems trying to bring out.
3. The rhythm of the poem.
4. Rhyming schemes of the two poems.
5. Special quality of the poem.
(See textbook page 144)
- The central idea of the poem is to highlight patriotic feeling of the army. They are ready to sacrifice their life in order to save their country.
- The qualities of bravery, patriotism and confidence have been brought out in the poem.
- The rhythm of the poem is iambic.
- The rhyme scheme of the two poems differ from each other. The poem ‘King Porus’ has no proper rhyme scheme while ‘The Charge of the Light Brigade’ has a, a, b, e pattern throughout the poem except the first stanza.
- This poem arouses feeling of patriotism in us.
Explain following expressions and images In your own words.
1. ‘someone had blundered’
2. Canon to the right of them canon to the left of them
3. ‘When can their glory fade’
4. ‘Honour the light Brigade-Noble six hundred.
(B) Find other poems about war and collect them for class discussions.
(i) incident of the French Camp —R. Browning
(ii) Casabianca —Felicia Hemens
A Legend of Old Summary in English
It is a historical poem which narrates the incident of battle between Alexander-the-Great and King Porus. This story is a fine illustration of Indian glory.
The story begins with the battle scene. It was mid-night hour when suddenly the army of Alexander-the-Great attack the Kingdom of Ind. There was thunder and roar all around. It was a fiery scene. The lightning flashed bright. It was dazzling like fair women’s glance from beneath her veil. There was a moaning sound of wail. In this horror the army of Ind came as a tiger, noiseless, slow. It was a ferocious battle, a deadlier storm.
The, king marched with his glorious flag and fought bravely. All his army-men were true to their devotion and fought bravely to save their freedom. It was a bloody battle. But at last the Ind’s army was over powered by Alexander’s troup. The king Porus as standing in the midst of foes like Himalayan peak with its eternal crown of snow. His milk- white elephant was looking like a brilliant gem. Porus was a real hero. Even in his defeat his face was shining dauntlessly. There was no fear on his face.
Kind Porus charged bravely with full confidence. So he was satisfied. Now he was a capture. He was to be presented before Alexander. He was chained.,Alexander was very much impressed with king’s boldness. He honoured him and asked him how he should be treated. Very confidently king Porus replied that he should be treated as a king by a king. Alexander was so much impressed with him that he allowed him freedom and returned his kingdom with all honour. Thus, the India’s crown was lost and owned.
A Legend of Old Summary in Hindi.
यह एक ऐतिहासिक कविता है जिसमें सिकंदर-महान और राजा पोरस के बीच लड़ाई की कहानी है। यह कहानी भारतीय गौरव का एक उत्कृष्ट नमूना है। कहानी की शुरुआत युद्ध के दृश्य से होती है। आधी रात के समय सिकंदर-महान की सेना अचानक ही सिन्ध प्रांत पर हमला बोल देती है। चारों ओर गर्जना फैल जाती है। यह एक ज्वालामयी दृश्य है। बिजली तेजी से चमक रही है। यह ऐसे चमकती है जैसे किसी औरत के चूंघट के अंदर से हल्की झलक दिखाई देती है। चीखने-चिल्लाने की आवाजें भी आती हैं। इस भयानक क्षण में सिंध की सेना चुपचाप धीरे-धीरे बाघ की तरह आयी। बड़ी भयानक लड़ाई थी। यह जानलेवा तूफान था।
राजा अपने गौरवशाली ध्वज के साथ आगे बढ़ा और बहादुरी के साथ लड़ा। उसके सभी सैनिक बहादुरी से अपनी पूरी निष्ठा के साथ अपनी आजादी की रक्षा के लिए लड़े। यह खूनी लड़ाई थी। लेकिन अंत में सिकंदर की सेना ने सिंध की सेना को परास्त कर दिया। राजा पोरस दुश्मनों के बीच हिमालय की चोटी की तरह एक अलौकिक बर्फीला ताज पहने हुए खड़ा था। उसका दूध के समान सफेद हाथी अद्भुत रत्न की तरह दिख रहा था। पोरस एक सच्चा नायक था। अपनी हार में भी उसका चेहरा निर्भयता से चमक रहा था। उसके चेहरे पर जरा भी भय नहीं था।
राजा पोरस पूरे आत्मविश्वास और बहादुरी से लड़ा। अब वह युद्धबंदी था। उसे सिकंदर के सामने पेश होना था। उसे कड़ियों में जकड़ा गया। सिकंदर उसके साहस से बहुत प्रभावित हआ। उसने उसका सम्मान करते हए उससे पूछा कि उसके साथ कैसा व्यवहार किया जाना चाहिए। पूरे आत्मविश्वास के साथ राजा पोरस ने उत्तर दिया कि उसके साथ वैसा ही व्यवहार होना चाहिए जैसा एक राजा दूसरे राजा के साथ करता है। सिकंदर पोरस के इस जवाब से इतना प्रभावित हुआ कि उसने सम्मान से उसे आजाद कर दिया और उसे उसका राज्य भी लौटा दिया। इस तरह भारत का ताज खोकर फिर से वापस आ गया।
A Legend of Old Word Meaning
A Legend of Old Comprehension
Read the following stanzas carefully and answer the questions that follow:
1. Loudly the midnight tempest sang,
Ah! it was thy dirge, fair Liberty!
And clouds in thundering accents roar’d Unheeded warning from on high;
The rain in dark some torrents fell,
Hydaspes’ waves did onwards sweep,
Like fiery passio’s heandlong flow,
To meet th’awaken’d calling deep;
(i) Name the poem and the pdet.
(ii) What is talked about in these lines?
(iii) What was the thundring accent?
(iv) What happened at the midnight hour?
(v) What is the meaning of ‘tempest’?
(i) The poem is King Porus-A legend of Old and the poet is Michael Maahusudan Dattai
(ii) The great battle between Alexander -The Great and King Poru is talked about in these lines.
(iii) The thundering accent was the roaring sound of the battle.
(iv) The army of Alexander attacked the kingdom of Ind. ruled by the Porus at the midnight hour.
2. Then lion-king, each warrior brave
Rushed on the’ coming foe,
To strike for freedom-or the grave!
Oh Death! upon thy gory altar
What blood-libations freely flow’d!
Oh Earth! on that bright mom, what, thousands
Rendered to thee the dust they ow’d!
(i) Who is the lion king in this stanza?
(ii) How did the army face the foe?
(iii) Why did they do so?
(iv) What was the fate of Ind’s army?
(v) What is the meaning of ‘rendered’?
(i) King Porus is the lion king in this stanza.
(ii) The army rushed on the foe bravely.
(iii) They did so in order to save their freedom and glory.
(iv) Their fate was that they met their defeat and were killed.
(v) rendered-presented something.
3. But dauntlessly there stood
King Porus, towering ‘midst the foe’
Like a Himala-peak
With its eternal crown of snow:
And on his brow did shine
The jewell’d regal diadem.
(i) Where was King Porus standing?
(ii) What was his expression?
(iii) What was he compared with?
(iv) How was he looking?
(v) What is the meaning of ‘Jewell’d’?
(i) King Porus was standing among the enemies’ army.
(ii) He was dauntless.
(Hi) He was compared with Himalayan peak.
(iv) He was looking grand with his shining face.
4. Like to a lion chain’d
Thattho’ faint-bleeding-stands in pride
With eyes, where unsubdued
Yet flash’d the fire-looks that defied;
King Porus boldly went
Where ‘midst the gay and flittering crowd’
Sat god-like Alexander;
(i) Who is compared with a lion chained here?
(ii) How was he looking?
(iii) How did he march on?
(iv) What does the expression ‘god-like’ signify?
(v) Give a word opposite in meaning to ‘cowardly’?
(i) King Porus is compared with a lion chained here.
(ii) He was confident and fearless.
(iii) He marched on boldly.
(iv) It signifies the supreme authority.