NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science PDF Download

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science all chapters in PDF form to free download or view online free of cost. All the NCERT Solutions and Offline Apps 2021-22 are updated for current academic session 2021-22.These NCERT Solutions are free for CBSE board, MP, Bihar board, UP Board, Gujrat Board, Uttarakhand Board, MP Board (Madhya Pradesh Board, Jammu and Kashmir Board of School Education (jkbose), who are following CBSE Syllabus 2021-22. For UP board (High School) students, these solutions are given in Hindi Medium as well as English medium. NCERT Solutions for class 10 Science are available in Hindi & English in both the format whether on website or in Offline apps. CBSE Classs 10 Science book PDF.

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NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Science

Subject:Science -विज्ञान
Medium:English – हिन्दी

CBSE NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Science

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science in English Medium as well as Hindi Medium free to download in PDF or study online free. All the solutions are updated for new academic session 2021-22. Students of UP Board, MP Board, Gujrat Board and all other boards can use these solutions who are following latest CBSE Syllabus 2021-22.

NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Science 2021-22

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Free PDF Download


Definitions of Acid and Bases in terms of H+ and OH- ions, Meaning, examples, uses (without using log table) and importance in daily life of pH scale. Preparation and uses of some important chemicals in day to day life as Sodium Hydroxide, Bleaching Powder, Baking Soda (calcium hydrogen carbonate), Washing Soda (calcium carbonate) and Plaster of Paris.


Physical and Chemical properties of metal and non-metals, Reactivity series and its importance in chemical reaction. Formation of simple ionic compounds like NaCl, Magnesium Chloride, etc. and its properties (Boiling point, Melting point, Solubility and reactivity) on the basis of the bond. Definition of corrosion and its prevention.

English Medium Solutions



Carbon compounds having covalent bonding, versatile nature of carbon to form large number of compounds. Homologous series, nomenclature of carbon compounds having functional groups – Halogens, Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes, Alcohol, Ketones and Aldehydes. Chemical properties of hydrocarbons, saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, properties and uses of Ethanol and Ethanoic acid. Difference between soaps and detergents.

English Medium Solutions



Why we need to classify the elements? Series of attempts made by scientists – Deboreiner’s Triads, Newland’s Law of Octaves, Mendeleev’s Periodic table and Henry Mosley – Modern Periodic table. Changing in properties of elements in moving left to right, top to bottom, valency, atomic number, metallic or non-metallic properties.


Elementary symptoms of a living or non-living objects. Different sources of energy and their needs in living organisms depending on their body design.  Basic concepts of Nutrition, Respiration, Transportation and Excretion in living being (Plants and Animals).


Response to stimuli by plants – Phototropism, Geo-tropism, Chemo-tropism, etc., Plant hormones – Auxin, Gibberellins, Cytokinins and Abscisic acid. Control and coordination in Plant and Animals (Nervous system, Voluntary and involuntary actions, reflex arc and reflex action, Chemical coordination in animal – Animal Hormones – Growth hormones, Insulin, Thyroxin, etc.


Reproduction in plants and animals – Asexual and Sexual. Different methods in plants – Binary & Multiple Fission, Regeneration, Budding, Spore formation and Vegetative propagation. Reproductive health and methods of family planning – Barrier, Surgical and Chemical Methods. Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) – HIV/AIDS, Syphilis, Warts, etc.


Meaning of Heredity & Evolution, Mendel’s Experiment – Laws of inheritance of traits. Sex determination in human being and other animals. Inherited and Acquired traits, Concepts of evolution – Species evolution, Changes in traits, determination of age of fossils.


Reflection of light by Convex/Concave mirror/lens. Image formation by spherical mirrors/lens. Uses of spherical mirror and lens. Definition of Centre of curvature, principal axis, focus, focal length and magnification. Laws of reflection and refraction – Snell’s law. Mirror and lens formula and numerical based on it.


Structure and functions of eye lens in human, function of Iris, Pupil, Crystalline lens, Ciliary muscles, cornea, retina. Defects of eye (Myopia, Hypermetropia and Presbyopia) and their corrections. Applications of spherical mirrors. Dispersion of light, Refraction of light through a prism, scattering of light by atmosphere and applications of scattering in daily life.


Flow of Charges, Electric current and Potential difference. Ohm’s law (V = IR), Resistance and resistivity of a conductor, Factor affecting the resistance of a conductor. Total resistance in series and parallel. Advantages of connecting circuits in parallel as compared to series. Applications of heating effects of current in daily life. Electric power, Calculation of electric bill in kwh (commercial units) and use of different relations of P, V, I and R.


Magnetic field due to current carrying conductor, magnetic field line of bar magnet and solenoids. Force on current carrying conductor and its direction according to Fleming’s Left Hand Rule, Electric motor and generator. Induced potential difference due to electromagnetic inductions and induced current. Direction of current according to Fleming’s Right Hand Rule, Difference between direct and alternative current. advantages and frequency of AC over DC and domestic circuits.


Different forms of energy – Wind, Flowing water, Tidal, Ocean Thermal, Solar, Thermal power plant. Conventional and non-conventional sources, Renewable and non-renewable source of energy. Nuclear energy – Its advantages and hazards.


Eco-System – Biotic and Abiotic components of ecosystem. Environment problems about Ozone layer depletion, waste product management. Difference between biodegradable and non-biodegradable substances.


Conservation of natural resources – Forest, Fossil fuel (Coal and Petroleum), water, etc. Advantages/disadvantages of construction of dam. Water harvesting and its traditional method in different states of India. Chipko movement to protect Khejri trees.

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NCERT Solutions Class 10 Science & Main Points Of All Chapters

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science About Chapter

Chapter 1: Chemical Reactions And Equations

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 1 deals with the various types of Chemical Reactions and Equations with related examples. It also teaches how to write a skeleton reaction and way to balance the chemical reactions. There are mainly five kinds of reactions which are combination reaction, Decomposition reactions, Displacement and Double Displacement reactions and Oxidation-Reduction or Redox reactions. The introduction with the example of exothermic and endothermic reactions are also important for board exams. We can learn here about how precipitation reactions produce insoluble salts.

Chapter 2: Acids, Bases And Salts

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 2 includes the concepts of Acid-base indicators or mixtures of these dyes which are used to indicate the presence of acids and bases. The concentration of H+ ions and OH- ions are the base for the concepts of Base or Acids. Further, we have to study the reactions of Acids or Bases with Metal, Water and Metal Carbonates also. The properties of acidic and basic solutions in water are given on a separate segment. The strength of an acid or an alkali can be tested by using a scale called the pH scale (0-14) which gives the measure of hydrogen ion concentration in a solution. The crystallisation of compounds with water is the fixed number of water molecules present in one formula unit of salt. There are various uses of salts in everyday life and in industries.

Chapter 3: Metals And Non-Metals

In NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science of Class 10 Science, we will study that elements can be classified as metals and non-metals. We will go through the physical and chemical properties of metals and non-metals. Physical properties of metals are lustrous, malleable, ductile and are good conductors of heat and electricity. There are some exceptions like metals are solid at room temperature but mercury which is a liquid. Few metals show the properties of both basic as well as acidic oxides. These oxides are known as amphoteric oxides. The main topics of Class 10 Science Chapter 3 are Activity series, Ore, Mineral, Gangue, Extraction of Metals from their ores, Metallurgy, Alloy, Corrosion and Rancidity.

Chapter 4: Carbon And Its Compounds

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science of Class 10 Science, covers deals with versatile properties of carbon, Catenation and Tetravalency. Formation of Single, Double and Triple Covalent Bonds by the sharing of the electron. Carbon compounds with straight chains branched chains or rings. Knowledge about homologous series of compounds and functional group attached to carbon chains such as alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids. Preparation of Ethanol with proper Chemical Reactions and properties of Ethanol and ethanoic acid, The action of soaps and detergents with the concepts of hydrophilic or hydrophobic groups.

Chapter 5: Periodic Classification Of Elements

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 5 is based on how elements are classified on the basis of similarities in their properties. Elementary knowledge about Döbereiner’s triads and Newland’s Law of Octaves. Merits and drawback of Mendeléev periodic table and the contribution of this table in the discovery of new elements. Modern periodic table proposed by Henry Moseley. Physical and chemical properties trends in the modern periodic table. We have to learn about Periodicity which is the properties including atomic size, valency as well as combining capacity and metallic and non-metallic character.

Chapter 6: Life Processes

Life processes include the main four processes like Nutrition, Digestion, Respiration and Excretion. We know that maintenance of life requires these processes to transport of materials within the body and excretion of waste products. Autotrophic nutrition and Heterotrophic nutrition both describe separately. In human beings, the food eaten is broken down by various steps along the alimentary canal and the digested food is absorbed in the small intestine to be sent to all cells in the body. Respiration may be aerobic or anaerobic. Aerobic respiration releases more energy as compared to anaerobic. In human beings, excretory products in the form of soluble nitrogen compounds whereas in plants gum and resin.

Chapter 7: Control And Coordination

Control and coordination, in Class 10 Science, have the functions of the nervous system and hormones
in our bodies. The responses of the nervous system as a reflex action, voluntary action or involuntary action. Functions of sensory and motor nerves. The nervous system uses electrical impulses to transmit messages using neurons. Chemical coordination in plants using various hormones. Effect of hormones and related glands in human. The action of the hormones is totally based on a feedback mechanism.

Chapter 8: How Do Organisms Reproduce?

Class 10 Science Chapter 8 involves the creation of a DNA copy and additional cellular apparatus by the cell involved in the process and different modes of reproduction depending on their body design. For example, in fission, many bacteria and protozoa simply divide into two or more daughter cells, whereas organisms such as hydra can regenerate if they are broken into pieces. Roots, stems and leaves of some plants grow to be new plants through vegetative propagation. Sexual Reproduction is totally different from Asexual Reproduction. Sexual reproduction involves two individuals for the creation of a brand new individual. Reproduction in flowering plants involves the transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma which is referred to as pollination. Sexual reproduction in human beings involves the introduction of sperm to fertilisation occurs in the fallopian tube.

Chapter 9: Heredity And Evolution

Variations arising during the process of reproduction can be discussed in Chapter 9 Heredity and Evolutions of Class 10 Science. As we know that sexually reproducing individuals have two copies of genes for the same trait. Concepts of dominant trait and recessive trait traits describe the transfer of traits properly in this chapter. Difference between inherited and acquired traits are the important topics which are frequently asked in Boards. The determination of sex of the offspring depends on different factors in all species. All the variations during the reproductions in the species somehow confer survival advantages. Sometimes it also shows the genetic drift. Due to geographic isolation, the speciation of species takes place.

Chapter 10: Light – Reflection And Refraction

In Class 10 Science Chapter 10 Light and related phenomena, Reflection or Refraction are given in brief. The concepts given in Light chapter are also important for further classes. The straight-line path of light and mirror – lens application is given for study. We have to study the reflecting surfaces, of all types, obey the laws of reflection and the refracting surfaces obey the laws of refraction. Main topics are New Cartesian Sign Conventions, mirrors and lenses formula, focal length, the radius of curvature and magnification. The power of a lens is measured as the reciprocal of its focal length. Its SI unit is dioptre.

Chapter 11: Human Eye And Colourful World

After going through Chapter 11 of Class 10 Science, we will be able to know about the accommodation of the eye, the near point of the eye or the least distance of distinct vision. The common defects of vision, which are included in Class 10 Science Chapter 11, are myopia, hypermetropia and presbyopia. Myopia. The splitting of white light into seven colours (VIBGYOR) is called dispersion. We will study here how to form a Rainbow or why we see sky reddish in the morning or evening. The blue colour of the sky and the reddening of the Sun at sunrise and sunset is due to scattering of light.

Chapter 12: Electricity

We will deal here with the basic concepts of Electricity and its heating effects. We know that a stream of electrons moving through a conductor constitutes an electric current. But, conventionally, the direction of current is taken opposite to the direction of flow of electrons. In Chapter 12 of Class 10 Science, we will learn about the SI unit of electric current, use of a cell or a battery and use of voltmeter and ammeter. The main topic is Ohm’s law which states that the potential difference across the ends of a resistor is directly proportional to the current through it, provided its temperature remains the same. Concepts of resistance and resistivity are also new for class 10 students, but these are important terms for further classes. Here we learn how to find total resistance when they are attached in parallel or series. The unit of power, consumption of electricity with heating effect and commercial unit of electricity are also important for exams.

Chapter 13: Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current

Here we will learn about a compass needle which is a small magnet and its one end, which points towards north, is called a north pole, and the other end, which points towards the south, is called a south pole. Main topics are Magnetic field, the direction of the magnetic field and a metallic wire carrying an electric current has associated with it a magnetic field. Fleming’s Right-hand rule and Left-hand rule for magnetism. We know that an electromagnet consists of a core of soft iron wrapped around with a coil of insulated copper wire. Here we have to study about Magnetic field of a solenoid carrying a current with a comparison of a bar magnet. An electric motor and the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction are also important for exams. Questions are frequently asked on the basis of a generator, live wire, fuse, short-circuiting or overloading.

Chapter 14: Sources Of Energy

As we know that our energy requirements increase with our standard of living nowadays. For our energy requirements, we have to improve the efficiency of energy usage and also try and exploit new sources of energy. In Chapter 14 of Class 10 Science, we will learn how we are looking for new sources of energy because the conventional sources of energy like fossil fuels are in danger of getting exhausted soon. Here, we will also learn about some solar devices and their advantages and disadvantages. All the energy sources depend on various factors like the ease and cost of extracting energy from the source. Solar cells, solar cooker, windmills, etc. ultimately derive their energy from the Sun.

Chapter 15: Our Environment

Main topics in Chapter 15 of Class 10 Science are Ecosystem, Food-Chain or Food-Web, Biodegradable or Non-biodegradable, Disposal of waste and CFSs. The various components of an ecosystem are interdependent. We know that the producers make the energy from sunlight available to the rest of the ecosystem. Food web or food chain is based on producers. 10 per cent law describes how the loss of energy take place as we go from one trophic level to the next. The ozone layer is now affected due to excess use of CFCs. The generated waste may be biodegradable or non-biodegradable cause the problem of disposal.

Chapter 16: Management Of Natural Resources

In Chapter 16 of Class 10 Science, we will learn how to use our natural resources like forests, wildlife, water, coal and petroleum in a sustainable manner. We should follow RRRRR, means Refuse, Reduce, Reuse, Repurpose and Recycle in our lives. We know that fossil fuels like coal and petroleum will ultimately be exhausted after a few years. In this chapter, we will learn how to utilise the renewable resources which may last for many years.

Why is respiration considered an exothermic reaction? Explain.

Energy in our body is obtained from the food we eat. During digestion, large molecules of food are broken down into simpler substances such as glucose. Glucose combines with oxygen in the cells and provides energy. The special name of this combustion reaction is respiration. Since energy is released in the whole process, it is an exothermic process.

What are olfactory indicators? Give an example.

Olfactory indicators are substances which have different odour in acid and base solutions. For example, vanilla essence has characteristics pleasant smell in acid solution and no smell in alkali solution.

Platinum, gold and silver are used to make jewellery. Why?

Platinum, gold, and silver are used to make jewellery because they are very lustrous. Also, they are very less reactive and do not corrode easily.

Why are carbon and its compounds used as fuels for most applications?

Most of the carbon compounds give a lot of heat and light when burnt in air. Saturated hydrocarbons burn with a clean flame and no smoke is produced. The carbon compounds, used as a fuel, have high calorific values. Therefore, carbon and its compounds are used as fuels for most applications.

How does the electronic configuration of an atom relate to its position in the Modern Periodic Table?

In the modern periodic table, atoms with similar electronic configurations are placed in the same column. In a group, the number of valence electrons remains the same. Elements across a period show an increase in the number of valence electrons.

What is the role of saliva in the digestion of food?

Saliva is secreted by the salivary glands, located under the tongue. It makes the food soft for easy swallowing. It contains a digestive enzyme called salivary amylase, which breaks down starch into sugar.

What are the methods used by plants to get rid of excretory products?

Plants use completely different strategies for excretion than those of animals. They can get rid of excess water by transpiration. For other wastes, plants use the fact that many of their tissues consist of dead cells, and that they can even lose some parts such as leaves. Many plant waste products are stored in cellular vacuoles. Waste products may be stored in leaves that fall off. Other waste products are stored as resins and gums, especially in old xylem. Plants also excrete some waste substances into the soil around them.

How does phototropism occur in plants?

The movement of plant in response to light is called phototropism. Stem shows positive phototropism as follows: When growing plants detect light, a hormone called auxin, synthesised at the shoot tip, helps the cells to grow longer. When light is coming from one side of the plant, auxin diffuses towards the shady side of the shoot. This concentration of auxin stimulates the cells to grow longer on the side of the shoot which is away from light. Thus, the plant appears to bend towards light.

How does chemical coordination take place in animals?

Chemical coordination takes place in animals with the help of hormones. Hormone is the chemical messenger that regulates the physiological processes in living organisms. It is secreted by glands. The regulation of physiological processes and control and coordination by hormones comes under the endocrine system. The nervous system along with the endocrine system in our body controls and coordinates the physiological processes.

How does the process of budding is differ from the process of spore formation?

Budding: A bud, as in Hydra, develops as an outgrowth due to replicated cell division at a specific site. These buds when mature detach from the parent body and become new individual.
Spore Formation: In spore formation, as in Rhizopus, a specific part called Sporangia that produce spores. The spores are covered by thick walls that protect them until a spore gets favourable conditions to grow into a new (Rhizopus) plant.

A battery of 9 V is connected in series with resistors of 0.2 Ω, 0.3 Ω, 0.4 Ω, 0.5 Ω and 12 Ω, respectively. How much current would flow through the 12 Ω resistor?

Total resistance of resistors when connected in series is given by
R = R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 + R5 = ⟹ R= 0.2 Ω + 0.3 Ω + 0.4 Ω + 0.5 Ω + 12 Ω =13.4 Ω
According to Ohm’s law, V = IR
I = V/R = 9/13.4 = 0.67 A
There is no current division occurring in a series circuit. So, the current through the 12 Ω resistor will be same as 0.67 A.

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