(4) VERB: A verb is a word which shows something done. जिस शब्द से किसी कार्य के करने अथवा होने का बोध होता है, उसे Verb (क्रिया) कहते हैं।
Kinds of Verb 1. Transitive Verb : This kind of verb shows an action which passes over from the subject to the object.
Prem opens the door.
The cow eats grass.
2. Intransitive Verb: This kind of verb shows an action which stops with its subject. It does not require object to complete its sense. यह Verb अपने Subject के साथ ही पूरा अर्थ दे देता है। इसे Object की आवश्यकता नहीं होती है।
The sun rises in the east.
3. Linking Verb: This verb takes another word (complement) to complete its sense. यह क्रिया अपना अर्थ पूरा करने के लिए अन्य पूरक शब्द (Complement) लेती है।
Ravi is a boy.
Meghna was beautiful.
4. Adverb: An adverb is a word which modifes an adjective, verb or another adverb. जो शब्द किसी विशेषण, क्रिया अथवा अन्य क्रिया विशेषण की विशेषता बतलाता है, क्रिया-विशेषण कहलाता है।
Kinds of Adverb
Adverb of Time : now, then, when, before, always, never, again, late, soon, etc.
Adverb of Place : here, there, where, everywhere, above, below, under, in, out, far, near, up, etc.
Adverb of Number: once, twice, thrice, often, always, never, frequently, thirdly, etc.
Adverb of Manner : well, thus, slowly, so, wisely, etc.
Adverb of Degree of Quantity : much, more, most, little, wholly, enough, etc.
Adverb of Reason: so, therefore, hence, accordingly, etc.
Number दो प्रकार के होते हैं (1) Singular Number (एकवचन) Noun का वह रूप है जिससे एक प्राणी या वस्तु का बोध हो। जैसे-man, boy, girl, chair, etc. (2) Plural Number (बहुवचन) Noun का वह रूप है जिससे एक से अधिक प्राणियों या वस्तुओं का बोट होता है। जैसे- man, boys, girls, chairs, etc.
Formation of Plurals (बहुवचन बनाना)
Singular से Plural बनाने के लिए निम्नलिखित नियम होते हैं
1. Singular number के अन्त में ‘ड’ जोड़कर-
2. जिन Nouns के अन्त में ‘g’, ‘sh’, ‘ss’, ‘ch’ या ‘x’ होता है, उनके अन्त में ‘es’ जोडकर
3. जिन Nouns के अन्त में ‘y’ होता है और ‘y’ से पूर्व Vowel हो, तो उनका Plural बनाने के लिए ‘y के पश्चात् ” लगाया जाता है।
4. जिन Nouns के अन्त में ‘y’ होता है और y’ से पूर्व Consonant हो, तो उनका Plural बनाने के लिए y’ को ” में बदलकर ‘es’ जोड़ दिया जाता है।
5. जिन Nouns के अन्त में ‘o’ होता है उनका Plural बनाने के लिए उनके बाद में ‘es’ जोड़ा जाता है।
6. जिन Nouns के अन्त में Fया ‘fe’ होता है, उनका Plural बनाने के लिए ‘ या ‘fe’ को ‘V’ में बदलकर ‘es’ जोड़ दिया जाता है।
7. कुछ Nouns का Plural बनाने के लिए Singular के अन्दर का Vowel बदल देते हैं।
8. कुछ Nouns के Singular और Plural एक-से (समान) ही होते हैं।
9. कुछ Nouns सदैव Singular में ही प्रयोग किए जाते हैं।
10. कुछ Nouns सदैव Plural में ही प्रयोग किए जाते हैं।
Comparative तथा Superlative बनाने के नियम 1. Positive Degree के अन्त में ‘er’ और ‘est’ लगाकर।
2. Positive Degree के अन्त में जब ‘e’ अक्षर होता है तो’ और ‘st’ लगाकर
3. Positive Degree के अन्त में यदि ‘ हो तो y’ को ‘ में बदलकर उसमें ‘err और ‘est’ लगाकर।
4. Positive degree के पूर्व more यो most लगाकर
5. बिना किसी नियम के।
Write the comparative and superlative degrees of the following adjectives :
Wise, tall, long, good, bad, old, happy, little.
Rich, young, big, strong, ugly, holy.
Kind, up, able, safe, dry, useful.
Fill in the blanks with the correct form of adjectives given in the brackets.
Pen is ……………………………… than sword. (might)
Shyam is ……………………………… than Ram (tall)
Kolkata is the ……………………………… city in India. (busy)
Shimla is ……………………………… than Delhi. (cold)
He is the ……………………………… of all the brothers. (wise)
Shipra is the ……………………………… of all the sisters. (pretty)
Rohit is ……………………………… than Mohit. (Clever)
A Preposition is a word which is placed before a Noun or å Pronoun to show its relation with other words. जो शब्द किसी Noun या Pronoun के पूर्व रखा जाता है और जो उसका सम्बन्ध अन्य शब्दा ते बताता है, Preposition कहलाता है। जैसे :
The pen is on the table. इस वाक्य में ‘on’ Preposition है, जो pen का सम्बन्ध table से बताता है।
Some Important Prepositions – At, on, in, to, by, with, for, from, out, of, up, under, upon, about, before, behind, between, beneath, within, without.
Use of Some Prepositions 1. At, In: At छोटे स्थान के साथ प्रयोग किया जाता है। In बड़े स्थान के साथ प्रयोग किया जाता है। जैसे
He lives at Bhopal.
We live in India.
2. In, Into : In स्थिति को बताता है और Into गति का बोध कराता है। जैसे
All the boys are in the classroom.
We bought the tickets and went into the hall.
3. With, By : with यंत्र के साथ प्रयोग होता है और by कार्य करने वाले के साथ प्रयोग किया जाता है। जैसे
We cut the apple with the knife.
The snake was killed by the farmer.
4. Since, For : Since निश्चित समय के साथ (जैसे दिन का नाम या तिथि आदि) और For समय की अवधि के साथ प्रयोग किया जाता है। जैसे
He has been ill Since Monday.
Raj Kumar has been absent for three days.
5. Between, Among : Between दो व्यक्तियों तथा Among दो से अधिक व्यक्तियों के लिए प्रयोग किया जाता है। जैसे
Divide these mangoes between Raj and Ravi.
The gentlemen divided his property among his four sons.
6. On, Upon : On गतिहीनता तथा Upon गतिशीलता के लिए प्रयोग किया जाता है।
The cat is sitting on the table.
The dog sprang upon the table.
7. In, Within : In समय की अवधि की समाप्ति का बोध कराता है और Within समय की अवधि के भीतर का बोध कराता है। जैसे
I shall come back in a week. (एक सप्ताह की समाप्ति पर)
I shall come within a week. (एक सप्ताह समाप्त हाने से पूर्व)
8. Below, Beneath : Below पद के संदर्भ में और Beneath स्थान के संदर्भ में प्रयोग किया जाता है। जैसे
Your brother is below my rank.
The lion sat beneath a tree.
9. Beside, Besides : Beside का अर्थ है-पास (by the side of) जब कि Besides का अर्थ है-अतिरिक्त। जैसे
The boys stood beside the teacher’s chair.
Besides the Principal other teachers spoke in the prayer assembly.
10. With, Without : With का अर्थ है-साथ और Without का अर्थ है-बिना (रहित)।
Come to me with your brother.
Come to the field without anything.
EXERCISE 6 Fill in the blank with suitable prepositions given in bracket :
I went to Indore …………………………….. May. (on, in, at)
She bought this pen …………………………….. ten rupees. (with, of, for)
The monkey jumped …………………………….. the rive. (in, into, on)
He ran …………………………….. the thief. (before, after, with)
He started …………………………….. six …………………………….. the morning. (in, on, at)
Kanıla plucked an apple …………………………….. the tree. (from, on, at with)
The teacher beat him …………………………….. a cane. (by, with, from)
I do not agree …………………………….. you. (on, by, with)
Conversion of Sentences
(1) Statements into Questions
I see a bird – Do I see a bird ?
He did his work. – Did he do his work ?
The boy is writing a letter. – Is the boy writing a letter ?
The teacher has taught the boys. – Has the teacher taught the boys ?
She will come here. – Will she come here?
Change the following setences from Statement into Questions :
She is a good girl.
The dog has a bone.
The teacher is beating the boy.
She will be reading the newspaper at this time.
The horse was running.
My mother had cooked food before 4 O’clock.
The patient could not move.
(2) From positive into Negative
Positive : I have a book. Negative : I have not a book.
Positive : The girl is singing a song. Negative : The girl is not singing a song.
Positive : He loves me. Negative : He does not love me.
Positive : I bought a book yesterday. Negative : I did not buy a book yesterday.
Positive : You will do this work today. Negative : You will not do this work today.
Positive : I have done my work. Negative : I have not done my work.
Positive : I play daily. Negative : I do not play daily.
Change the following sentences from Positive to Negative :
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was a great leader.
My grand-father was a rich man in the village.
She has a good doll to play with.
I have three brothers and two sisters.
You had a good time in Kashmir.
The boys play hockey in the evening.
Children like sweets.
Change of Voice
Voice दो प्रकार की होती है
Active Voice: जब Verb द्वारा Subject की प्रधानता प्रकट होती है तो उसे Verb in the Active Voice कहते हैं। इस प्रकार के वाक्य में Subject स्वयं कार्य करता है।
He did his work.
Passive Voice : जब Verb द्वारा Object की प्रधानता प्रकट की जाती है तो उसे Verb in the Passive Voice कहते है।
His work was done by him.
Subject तथा Object की प्रधानता समझने के लिए निम्नलिखित वाक्यों पर ध्यान दीजिए :
Active Voice : The cat killed the rat.
Passive Voice : A rat was killed by the cat.
पहले वाक्य में Subject, Cat है, जो स्वयं कार्य करती है, परन्तु दूसरे वाक्य में उससे काम कराया गया है (अर्थात चूहे को मरवाया गया बिल्ली के द्वारा)। इस प्रकार दूसरे वाक्य में Rat को जो पहले वाक्य में Object था Subject बना दिया गया।
Active Voice से Passive Voice बनाने के नियम
Active Voice के Object को Passive Voice में Subject बना दिया जाता है।
Active Voice के Subject को Passive Voice में Object बना कर उससे पूर्व लगा दिया जाता है।
Passive Voice में Main Verb सदैव अपनी Third Form में प्रयोग किया जाता है।
Main Verb की Third Form के पूर्व Tense के अनुसार सहायक क्रिया प्रयोग की जाती है।
Tense के अनुसार क्रिया
1. Present Indefinite Tense : Is, are, am.
Active Voice : He writes a letter.
Passive Voice : A letter is written by him.
Active Voice :The girl sings songs daily.
Passive Voice : Songs are sung daily by the girl.
Active Voice : Harish helps me.
Passive Voice : I am helped by Harish.
2. Past Indefinite Tense : Was, were.
Active Voice : The boy wrote a letter.
Passive Voice : The letter was written by a boy.
Active Voice : The boy wrote two letters.
Passive Voice : Two letters were written by the boy.
3. Future Indefinite Tense : Will be, shall be.
Active Voice : He will write a letter.
Passive Voice : A letter will be written by him.
Active Voice : She will help me.
Passive Voice : I shall be helped by her.
4. Present Continuous Tense : Is being, are being, am being.
Active Voice : A letter is being written by him.
Passive Voice : A Letter is being written by him.
Active Voice : He is praising me.
Passive Voice : I am being praised by him.
5. Past Indefinite Tense : Was being, were being.
Active Voice : The man was selling eggs.
Passive Voice : Eggs were being sold by the man.
Active Voice : He was reading a book.
Passive Voice : A book was being read by him.
6. Present Perfect Tense : Has been, have been.
Active Voice : The boy has written an essay.
Passive Voice : An essay has been written by the boy.
Active Voice : The boy has eaten ten mangoes.
Passive Voice : Ten mangoes have been eaten by the boy.
7. Past Perfect Tense : Had been.
Active Voice : She had done her work.
Passive Voice : Her work had been done by her.
8. Future Perefect Tense : Will have been, shall have been.
Active Voice : The teacher will have taught the lesson.
Passive Voice : The lesson will have been taught by the teacher.
Change the Voice :
The boy writes a letter.
The cat killed two rats.
The teacher will beat me.
Hari has killed a snake.
He is plucking mangoes.
He was not obeying his mother.
Raj will have written the essay.
The train had left the station before I reached there.
A, An और The को Articles कहते हैं। ये भी Noun की विशेषता Adjective की भांति बताते हैं। Articles दो प्रकार के होते हैं 1. Indefinite Article : ‘a’ तथा ‘an’ दोनों Indefinite Articles हैं, क्योंकि ये सामान्य वस्तु की ओर संकेत करते हैं। जैसे
A dog bit a boy.
I saw an owl on an apple tree.
संकेत- ‘An’ का प्रयोग उन Nouns के पूर्व किया जाता है, जो Vowel से आरम्भ होते हैं। जैसेAn eye, an angel, an inkpot, an umbrella.
2. Definite Article : केवल The definite article है। यह विशेष वस्तु की ओर संकेत करता है। जैसे (i) My father met the Principal. (ii) Arun went to see the Taj which stands on the right bank of the Jamuna.
Fill in the blanks with a, an, and the
Hindi is …………………………………………. easy language.
…………………………………………. English defeated …………………………………………. Germans
…………………………………………. horse is …………………………………………. useful animal.
He bought …………………………………………. camel …………………………………………. ox and …………………………………………. bullock.
Give him …………………………………………. orange.
…………………………………………. rose is …………………………………………. king of flowers.
…………………………………………. hint to …………………………………………. wise is enough.
She returned after …………………………………………. hour.
Direct and Indirect Narration
किसी अन्य व्यक्ति द्वारा कही हुई बात हम दो प्रकार से लिखते हैं- (1) कहने वाले के मूल (असली) शब्दों में ज्यों का त्यों रखना। इसे Direct Speech कहते हैं। यह सदैव Inverted Commas “…….” में रखी जाती है।
Kamal says, “I am going.”
(2) कहने वाले की बात को अपने शब्दों में बदलकर रखना। इसे Indirect Speech कहते हैं।
Kamal Says that he is going.
संकेत-Indirect Speech में Inverted Commas नहीं दिये जाते हैं।
Direct Speech के दो भाग होते हैं
Inverted Commas के पहले वाला भाग। इससे वाक्य को आरम्भ करते हैं। इसे Reporting Verb कहते हैं। उपर्युक्त वाक्य में Kamal says, Reporting Verb हैं।
Inverted Commas के अन्दर लिखे हुए शब्द। इसे Reported Speech कहते हैं। उपर्युक्त वाक्य में “I am going”, Reported Speech है।
Direct Speech को Indirect Speech में बदलने के सामान्य नियम
Reported Speech के Inverted Commas को Indirect Speech में हटा देते हैं।
Reporting Verb तथा Reported Speech के बीच के Comma को हटा दिया जाता है।
Reported Speech का प्रथम अक्षर जो सदैव Capital होता है, Indirect Speech में Small letter हो जाता है।
Reprorting Verb तथा Reported Speech को that लगाकर जोड़ दिया जाता है।
Reported Speech की क्रिया (जब Reporting Verb, Past Tense में होता है) Past Tense में बदल दी जाती है।
Pronoun का Person बदल जाता है।
समीपता प्रकट करने वाले शब्द बदल कर दूरी प्रकट करने वाले शब्द बन जाते हैं। नोट- अन्तिम तीन प्रकार के परिवर्तन कुछ नियमों के अनुसार किये जाते हैं, जिनका वर्णन आगे किया जा रहा है।
Rules For The Change Of Tenses
Rule 1. यदि Reporting Verb, present अथवा Future Tense में होता है, तो Reported Speech के Verb का Tense, Indirect Speech में नहीं बदलता है।
Example : Direct : He says, “Mohan is a good boy.” Indirect : He says that Mohan is a good boy. Direct : She is saying, “The teacher went away.” Indirect : She is saying that the teacher went away. Direct : He will say, “The school will be closed. ”Indirect : He will say that the school will be closed.
2. जब Reporting Verb, Past Tense में होता है, तो Reported Speech के Verb का Tense, Indirect Speech में निम्नलिखित रूप में बदल जाता है- Present Indefinite – बदलकर – Past Indefinite हो जाता है। Present Imperfect – बदलकर – Past Imperfect हो जाता है। Present Perfect – बदलकर – Past Perfect हो जाता है। Present Continuous – बदलकर – Past Continuous हो जाता है। Past Indefinite – बदलकर – Past Perfect हो जाता है। Past Imperfect – बदलकर – Past Perfect हो जाता है। Past Imperfect – बदलकर – Past Continuous हो जाता है। Shall – बदलकर – Should या would हो जाता है। Will – बदलकर – Would या Would हो जाता है। May – बदलकर – Might हो जाता है। Can – बंदलकर – Could हो जाता है। Do not a does not – बदलकर – Did not हो जाता है। Did not – बदलकर – Had not हो जाता है। Is done u are done – बदलकर – Was या were done हो जाता है। Was done – बदलकर – Had been done a To do (Infinizive) नहीं बदलता है।
EXAMPLES : Direct’: Ram said, “Shyam runs.” Indirect : Ram said that Shyam ran. Direct : I said, “He is running.” Indirect : I said that he was running. Direct : I said, “He ran.” Indirect : I said that he had run. Direct : I said, “They will go.” Indirect : I said that they would go. Direct : I said, “He wants to go.” Indirect : I said that he wanted to go.
3. परन्तु यदि Reported Speech, की क्रिया सदैव सत्य रहने वाला तथ्य अथवा आदत प्रकट करती है तो उसकी क्रिया Indirect में भी वर्तमान काल में रहती है। जैसे- Direct : He said, “The sun rises in the east.” Indirect : He said that the sun rises in the east.” Direct : He said, “Ram takes exercise daily.” Indirect : He said that Ram takes exercise daily.
Rules For The Change Of Pronouns 1. Direct Speech at Indirect Speech में बदलते समय Reported Speech में First Person के Pronoun बदलकर Reporting Verb के Subject के Person के अनुसार हो जाते हैं, जैसे- Direct : I said “I am going.” Indirect : I said that I was going. Direct : You said, “I am going.” Indirect : You said that you were going. Direct : He said, “I am going.” Indirect : He said that he was going.
2. Reported Speech के Second Person के Pronouns, Indirect Speech में बदल कर Reporting Verb के Object के Person के अनुसार हो जाते हैं, जैसे- Direct : My father said to me, “You are a good boy.” Indirect : My father told me that I was a good boy. Direct : My father said to you, “You are a good boy.” Indirect : My father told you that you were a good boy. Direct : My father said to him, “You love your sister.” Indirect : My father told him that he loved his sister.
3. Direct Speech of third person & Pronouns, Indirect Speech sf third person en Direct : She said, “He has gone back.” Indirect : She said that he had gone back. Direct : He said, “They went to Africa.” Indirect : He said that they had gone to Africa.
4. Reported Speech में जब ‘We’ कहने वाले तथा सुनने वाले दोनों के लिए आता है तो Indirect Speech में भी We ही रहता है। जैसे- Direct : I said to him, “We are friends.” Indirect : I told him that we are friends.
3. Rules For The Change Of Words Showing Nearness Direct Speech को Indirect Speech में बदलते समय Reorted Speech के निकटता प्रकट करने वाले शब्दों को दूरी प्रकट करने वाले शब्दों में इस प्रकार बदल दिया जाता है। जैसे-
Examples : Direct : He said, “Mohan will come now.” Indirect : He said that Mohan would go then. Direct : He said, “He is here today”. Indirect : He said that he was There that day,
EXERCISE 11 Turn the following into Indirect narration :
I said, “I am sick.”
You said, “I shall write a letter today.”
Hari said, “I broke my slate yesterday.”
Raj said to Hari, “You are in the wrong on this point.”
I said to hin, “You will go to the market now.”
The teacher said to Radhey, “You have brought bad name to your school.”
The teacher said, “Everybody knows that the earth is round.”
The man said, “This is my house and that is yours.”
Opposite Words (Antonyms विपरीतार्थक शब्द)
Exercise : Give the antonyms (opposites) of the following : Cold, beautiful, light, pure, narrow, small, difficult, careful, export, friend, high, cool, day, white, timid. easily, happy, fine, near.
MP Board Class 6th Special English Composition Letter and Application Writing.
1. Write an application to your Headmaster or Principal requestiong him to remit your absence fine. To, The Headmaster, Govt. High School, Agra City.
Sir, Last Month I remained absent from school for five days. I fell ill. I gave my application to Raj, a student of class VI. Raj forgot to give the application to my class teacher. So, I was fined. I am a poor boy. I cannot pay the fine. Kindly remit my absence fine.
Yours obediently, Naveen Kumar, Class Vi Date : 14th Sept. 2005
2. Write an application to the Headmaster of your school requesting him to exempt you for payment of tuition fee. To, The Headmaster, Govt. High School. Jabalpur Cantt.
Sir, Most respectfully, I beg to state that my father is so poor that he cannot pay my school fees. He has a large family of seven members to support. His income is Rs. 600-a month. It is very difficult for us to make both ends meet.
I am student of class VIB of your school. I got very good marks in all the subjects in the last examination. I am a good hockey player of junior team and also obedient to all the teachers. I am regular in my studies as well as in attendance.
I am sure you will kindly grant me full fee concession.
Yours faithfully, X Date : February 4, 2006
3. Write an application to your principal requesting him to grant you sick leave. To The Principal, Govt. Inter College, Gwalior.
Sir, Most respectully, I beg to say that I have been suffering from fever since last night. I am unable to attend college. Kindly grant me sick leave for five days.
Your obedient pupil, Naveen Chandra, Class W-A. Date : March’ 10, 2006
4. Write a letter to your mother fillingabout your new school. 25, Model Town, Indore July 20, 2006
My dear Mother, I am glad to write that I like new school very much. My class-fellows are very kind to me. My teachers are very gentle. They always help us in studies and games.
The building of the school is grand. The school has beautiful park. It has two big playgrounds. Kindly pay my respects to father.
Your Loving Son, Arun.
5. Write a letter to your father telling him how you are going with your studies. F-20, Nehru Nagar, Gwalior December 5, 2005
My dear fathers,
I got your letter yesterday. You have asked me about my studies, Dear father, I am working well. I get up early in the morning and study for many hours.
I got good marks in the half-yearly examination.
Kindly pay my respects to dear mother and love to dear Alok and Meghna.
Yours affectionately, Geeta Sharma
6. Write a letter to your friend congratulating him or her on his or her success in the examination. Patel Nagar, Bhopal June 15, 2005
My dear Usha, Yesterday I got the news of your success in the High School Examination. My father brought this happy news.
You passed the examination in the first class. I congratulate you on your success. Pay my respects to your parents.
Yours sincerely, Hem Lata.
7. Write a letter of sympathy to a friend who has failed in the examination. Prem Puri, Indore June 15, 2005 My dear Santhosh,
I am very sorry to learn that you failed in the High School Examination. It was all due to your illness.
You should not lose heart. Please work hard. This year you will get got marks.I have great sympathy with you.
Please pay my respects to your parents.
Yours sincerely, Girish
8. Write a letter to your friend inviting him or her to tea. Sadar Bazar, Jabalpur May 20, 2006
My dear Sheela, You will be glad to know that my birthday falls on May 25, 2006 I am giving a grand tea party to my friends on that day.
I request you to reach my house at 3 p.m.
Yours sincerely, Rangina.
9. Write a letter to a book-seller ordering him to send you some books. 116, Nai Basti, Raipur. July 20, 2006 To, The Manager, Kamal Prakashan, New Delhi.
Dear Sir, I request you to send me the following books as per V.P.P. The books must be in a good condition.
Please send them as early as possible.
1. A.B.C. Grammer for class VI 5 Copies 2. Hamara Samaj 5 Copies 3. English Guide for class VI 5 Copies
Yours faithfully, Vidhya Sagar
MP Board Class 6th Special English Short Essay Writing
I read in Sarvadaya Senior Secondary School, Bhopal, It is situated out of the town in a grove of trees.
The building of my school is’ very grand. There are twenty five class-rooms and a big hall. We have our library and the reading room in the hall. All the rooms are airy, neat and clean. We have electric light and’fans in each room
There are about twenty-five teachers in my school. Shri R.N. Goel is our Principal. All the teachers and the Principal are well qualified and trained. They are very hard working. All of them love us.
In front of the building there is the school garden. It is full of flower, plants and trees. There are many grassy lawns in the garden. Our school has a big play-ground. We play games there.
Grove – कुँज। Grand – शानदार। Airy – हवादार। Trained – प्रशिक्षित। Hard working परिश्रमी। Grass – घासवाला।
My Best Friend
I have many boys in my school. I like them all. But of all of them I like Harish the most. He is almost as old as I am He is tall, strong and handsome. He has a smiling face.
He likes all sorts of games. He does not care much for books. He likes jokes.
Both of us read in the same class. We sit together at the same bench. We have many habits in common. Both of us are good players. I generally stand first in my class. My friends never feels jealous.
Both of us are helpful to each other. I often go to his village. His mother loves me just like her son. She is very glad to see me. His father is also a gentleman.
I like my friend because of his simple and noble nature. He is honest in all his dealings, he possesses a kind heart. He is God-fearing. He is always ready to help the poor and needy.
All sorts of – सब प्रकार के – In common-एक सी – Jealous-इर्ष्यालु – Thorough पूर्ण। Nature – स्वभाव। Dealings – व्यवहार। God-fearing – ईश्वर से डरने वाला।
The postman is a useful public servant. He does an important duty. He brings our letters, parcels and money-orders. He goes from door to door. He knows each and every house of the street.
The postman wears a Khaki dress. He keeps a bag with him. He keeps the letters, parcels and money-orders in this bag. He knocks at the door. People wait for him He brings news from our friends and relatives.
The postman does more work. He reads out the letters for the villagers. Sometimes, he writes letters for them. The postman’s life is very hard. He gets a small salary. The prices of things are rising. The postman cannot support his family. So he gets some money from the people as gift.
The government should raise his salary.
Important – महत्त्वपूर्ण। Knocks at – खटखटाता है। Relatives – सम्बन्धी। Bitter – अघि क। Salary – वेतन। Support – पालन करना। Gift – उपहार। Raise – बढ़ाना।
The policeman is a useful public servant, he has an important work to do. He helps us in many ways. He keeps peace wherever he is on dut&
The policeman wears a khaki dress. He ties a red turban on his head. A whistle is a part of his dress. The dress of a traffic policeman is different. The policeman guards our property. He keeps law and order. He is on duty when we are sleeping. Thieves are afraid of him.
The traffic policeman controls the traffic. Without him, traffic cannot move safely on the roads.
His life is very hard. He is always ready for duty. He puts himself in dangers. He faces the dacoits. Sometimes, he loses his life in accidents.
The policeman does not get a good salary. He cannot support his family well. He cannot give good education to his children. So he takes bribe.
The government should raise his salary.
Peace – शांति। Turban – पगड़ी। Whistle – सीटी। Traffic – यातायात। Different – भिन्न। Guards – रक्षा करता है। property – सम्पत्ति। Controls – नियंत्रित करता है। Dacoits – डाकू। Bribe – रिश्वत
A Hockey Match that I Saw
Last Sunday a hockey match was played between the Kisan School and D.A.V. School. It was a very interesting match. It was played at the Ramlila ground. Many boys came to see the match.
At 4 p.m. the referee called the captains of the teams. The Kisan School won the toss. After this both the teams entered the ground. They were wearing colourful uniforms.
The players took their positions. The game started. It was very interesting. Both the teams were equal. The ball was running to and fro.
The players played with full force. Both the teams tried hard. But none could make a goal in the first half.
The players took oranges during the interval. Then the game started again. This time the fight was very hard.
The captain of the Kisan School team took the ball: He hit it. The goal keeper of the D.AV. School team tried to save the goal. But he failed. Thus the Kisan School team made a goal.
There were shouting of joy form the crowd. The time was over. The match ended. The Kisan School team won it. It was really an interesting match.
Interesting – रोचक। Colourful – रंग-बिरंगे। Uniform – पोशाक। To and from – इधर-उध पर। Crowd – भीड़। Interesting – मजेदार।
The Diwali Festival
Diwali is one of the most important Hindu festivals. It falls in the middle of Kartik. It means a ‘row of earthen lamps’. Every Hindu householder lights up earthen lamps at night. It marks the coming of winter.
The Hindus believe that God Ram returned to Ayodhya on this day after defeating Ravan. He was given a warm welcome by the people of Ayodhya. Lamps were lit up in his honour.
The Sikhs celebrate it because their Guru Govind Singh was set free by the Mughals on this day. The jains believe that Mahavir Swami got salvation on this day.
Many days before the festival people begin to clean, white wash afid decorate their houses. On the day of festival all schools, offices and courts are closed. All people, young and old, put on new clothes. There is loud noise of crackers on this day.
At night ‘Lakshmi’, the Goddess of wealth is worshipped. There is a great hustle and bustle in bazaars. The sweet-sellers earn money. Many businessmen close their old accounts and begin their new business year on this day.
Some people gamble to try their luek. But they are often^ruined. We should try to keep away from this evil practice.
Festival – त्यौहार। Falls – पड़ता है। Earthen-lamp – मिट्टी के दीपक। Marks – आरम्भ करता है। Salvation – निर्वाण। Decorate – सजाना। Crackers – पटाखे। Hustle and Bustle – शोर-गुल। Gamble – जुआ खेलना।
Prize Distribution Function in My School
Today is our prize distribution -day. Every year our school gives away prizes to pupils of merit. I was waiting early for the day. I was in high spirits on that day. The Director of Education was our chief guest He was to give away the prizes. He came at 5 p.m. The Principal received him The school band played a welcome tune. He took his seat and the function began.
Prayers were sung. Then came the welcome song. The principal read out the school’s annual report.
The chief guest rose. He addressed the audience. He spoke about the progress of the school. He praised the pupils and the staff. He gave some suggestions for more progress. He sat down. The audience clapped.
Then the prize distribution began. The winners walked up to the chief guest. They saluted him and received their prizes with smiles on their faces. They marched to their places.
I was among the winners. I had to go to the stage six times to get my prizes. My parents were proud of me. The function ended at 7 p.m There was a light refreshment for guests.
We left the school in gay mood. On the successful function the Principal declared one day’s holiday.
Merit – योग्यता। In high spirirt – उत्साहपूर्ण। Audience – श्रोतागण। Suggestion – प्रस्ताव।
A Cricket Match that I saw
Cricket is a good game. It has become very popular. It is played all over the world: Thousands of people see a cricket test match for hours together.
Last year our college played a cricket match against S. A.V. Inter College. The match was played on our ground. S.A.V. Inter College team won the toss and went in.
The match started at lo’clock. The two opening batsmen went in to bat. Our players took position for fielding. Our captain bowled. And lo ! the first ball knocked the wicket down. It was a bad start for S.A.V. Inter College team Another player walked in to bat, he played carefully. But after half an hour wickets began to fall rapidly. The whole team was out after securing 80 runs. Now lunch began.
After lunch our team started batting. Our opening batsmen played well. They secured 80 runs in an hour. After this our team scored 60 runs for the loss of six wickets. Our captain hit the sixers. The crowd cheered the team oiir team was out for 120 runs.
S.AV. Inter College team did not come next day to play the second innings. We won match.
Popular – लोकप्रिय। carefully – सावधानीपूर्व। Rapidly – तेजी से। cheered – उत्साहित किया।
The cow is a domestic animal. She has four legs, two ears and two horns. She has a long tail. She keeps off flies with her tail. Her body is big. Cows are of different colours. Some cows are white, some are black and some are brown.
The cow” eat grass, straw and gram. She eats the oil cakes. She drinks water.
The cow is found every where in the world. American cows give more milk than Indian cows. In India the Hindus call her ‘Gau mata’.
The cow is a gentle animal She does not hurt anybody. Small children play with her. She is very intelligent.
She does not forget her master’s house.
The cow is a very useful animal. She gives us milk. Her milk is very useful for the children and the sick persons. We make sweets, ghee and curd from her milk. She giyes us calves which become bullocks. They plough our fields and draw carts.
Domestic – पालतू। Horns – सींग। Brown – कत्यई रंग की। Oil cakes – खल। Curd – दहि।
MP Board Class 6th Special English Paragraph Writing
Paragraph is a short composition, the following points should be kept in mind while writing a paragraph.
Uses of Computer
Computer is such a name which has revolutionized and replaced every other technology. Computers have become common in each field. No department can work effectively and efficiently without computers. Even professionals like lawyer, chartered accountant can’t work without computer. The information soared in the computer can be easily used up later. Computers have not left any field untouched. In the banking sector computers are playing a veiy important role. The use of computers makes bank transactions easy, accurate and swift. It eliminates harassment. So with advent of time computer education is gaining popularity and importance.
Pleasures of Watching Television
Television combines the pleasures of radio and cinema. It lias become the most popular means of entertainment these days. It is performing the vital task of mass education. It helps in increasing awareness among the masses. Television is no more a mere means of communication but has made the people addicted to it. The increasing number of channels and world wide reporters have made the TV viewing one of the most important sources of entertainment. The pleasure of watching TV can only be enjoyed till we watch it under controlled limit and do not exceed it.
Annual Sports Day of My School
Last week annual sports day was celebrated in my school. The entire programme reflected the enthusiasm and energy of the students who not only participated in the various sports events but also gave great performances. The most exciting moment was when our honourable chief guest entered the premises of the school. Our hearts were throbbing with excitement. Our chief guest was given a guard of honour. Exciting aerobatics and drills were displayed beautifully. The chief guest gave a very impressive speech and gave away prizes to all the students who had excelled in various arts. The programme came to close by singing of the National Anthem with zestful optimism.
An Ideal Teacher
An ideal teacher is one who is committed and sincere in her task. An ideal teacher has basic qualities. She works sincerely for her students. An ideal teacher performs the duties towards the students sincerely. An ideal teacher in spite of extraordinary academic attainments, displays extreme simplicity. There is no element of show in her personality. An ideal teacher dedicates her whole cause to the well being of the student. She is a book in herself. Not a single moment of her time is wasted. She never allows here students to be idle or indisciplined. She is always before us like a beacon of light.
A Visit to a Fair
It was a cold day of January. Some of my friends came to me and pressed me to accompany them to Pragati Maidan. The exhibition was spread over a large area of several acres. The stalls were very artistically and impressively displayed. Many countries like Russia, Germany, Japan, Canada, Poland, India etc., had taken part in the exhibition. We were very much impressed to see the technology displayed in the Germany stalls. In the Russian stall, the model of the rocket attracted large crowds. The defence pavilion of the Indian stall displayed all the various rockets, aeroplanes, missiles and satellites made in India. I really enjoyed the fair. The fair not only entertained and amused but also educated and enlightened me with great countries of the world.
A hobby is that activity which is carried on in leisure time. It is a means of recreation. It is a past time. It gives delight and helps in passing the leisure time. A hobby is an activity which is carried on entirely for the sake of pleasure. Gardening is my hobby. I derive great pleasure from this hobby. At the back of my house, I have developed a small plot of land. It is my garden. I have grown some flowers and some vegetables of the season in this plot. I indulge in my hobby early in the morning as soon as I am out of bed. My hobby gives me pleasure and refreshes me for day’s hard work. So the best hobby is one out of which we derive pleasure.
My Favourite Game
Games are a part and parcel of life. They provide us both physical as mental stamina. I have to play well as many games such as football, volleyball, tennis, cricket etc. But my favourite game is cricket. Cricket is one of the most popular games in India. I have joined sports cricket academy. I have been the champion of cricket in my school team. It is the easiest game to learn but needs a lot of practice. I love watching cricket matches. My favourite cricketer is Sachin Tendulkar. My cricket has made me popular among my friends. Cricket keeps me happy, teaches me cooperation and mutual understanding.
Honesty is the Best Policy
Honesty is a virtue. It always pays to the honest people though it may take some time. The honest wood-cutter who did not own the golden and silver axes, got them in reward for his honesty. Honesty survives up to the grave. Even the generations to come talk and praise the deeds of honest people. Honest Raja Harish Chandra was paid in the end for his honesty. Let all people be honest and make this world a second, paradise.
Unity is Strength
It is an old saying based on truth and age-old human experience. We all pin faith in, “united we stand and divided we fall”. Weak blades of grass if woven together, make a rope strong enough to tie even a mighty elephant. Tiny drops of water make a vast ocean. Penny and penny laid up will be many insignificant atoms when joined together, make a powerful bomb. When it is exploded it brings on too much havoc. It destroys life and property on all sides. No animal or inanimate escapes from destruction. All these things whether good or bad are the result of unity and it is unity that brings on strength.
Write a paragraph on the following topics.
The Republic Day
The Children’s Day celebrations
Celebrating Diwali without Crackers
Importance of Trees
A Morning Walk
A Scene at the Bus Stand
A Raing Day in Summer.
MP Board Class 6th Special English Vocabulary
Some Collective Nouns
A shoal of fish
A bunch of flowers
A fleet of ships
A herd of cattle
A shelf of books
A team of players
A crowd of people
A choir of singers
A litter of puppies
A bunch of grapes
A gang of criminals
A troop of monkeys
An army of soldiers
A pack of wolves
A class of students
A school of whales
A flock of sheep
A pride of lions
A heap of stones
A bundle of sticks
A bouquet of foyers
A band of musicians
A crew of sailors
A swarm of bees
Pair of nouns
Arts and sciences
Bag and baggage
Bow and arrow
Bread and butter
Flesh and blood
Friend or foe
Hand and foot
Heart and soul
Heaven and earth
Horse and cart
Hue and cry
King and Queen
Ladies and gentlemen
Land and sea
Light and shade
Lock and key
Male and female
Man and beast
Sounds made by Animals
Bears ______ growl
Bees ______ hum
Birds ______ sing, chirp, twitter
Cats ______ purr, mew
Cocks ______ crow
Cows ______ moo
Dogs ______ bark
Ducks ______ quack
Elephants ______ trumpet
Flies ______ buzz
Frogs ______ croak
Geese ______ cackle
Goats ______ bleat
Hens ______ cackle, cluck
Horses ______ neigh
Lambs ______ bleat
Sounds made by objects
Airplanes – zoom
Bells – ring
Bombs – explode
Camera – click
Clocks – tick
Drums – beat
Coins – jingle
Doors – slam, bang
Drums – beat
Engines – throb
Feet – shuffle
Fire – crackles
Guns – boom
Hands – clap
Hearts – beat
Loudspeakers – blase
One Word for the Group of Words
One who is liked by the people – Popular
One who believes in God – Theist
One who dpes not believe in God – Atheist
One who look at the bright side of things – optimistic
One who can neither read near write – Illiterate
A place hied up for reading and studying – Library
A place whore birds, animals etc. are kept – Zoo
A disease that ends’ in death – Fatal
Word for word – Verbal
Fit to be eaten – Edible
The person who flies airplanes – Pilot
The person who mends our shoes – Cobbler
Artist – One who draws, paints etc.
Actor – One who plays a part on the stage or in a film.
Architect – One who design buildings.
Astronaut – One trained for space travel.
Author – One who writes bocks and stories.
Baby sitter – One who looks after a baby.
Butcher – One who sells meat.
Carpenter – One who makes things out of wood.
Coach – One who gives special training in games and sports.
Cobber – One who mends shoes.
Dentist – One who attends to people’s teeth.
Editor – One who improves and prepares for publication for printing.
Electrician – One who fits or repairs electrical devices
Grocer – One who sells foodstuff and other household needs.
Hawker – One who moves from place to place to sell things.
journalist – One who corrects, edits or publishes a newspaper.
Lawyer – One who handles matters of law and fights court cases.
Optician – One who tests eye sight and sells spectacles:
Plumber – One who fits or repair water pipes, drowns, sinks, toilets etc.
Surgeon – A doctor who performs operations
Young Ones of Animals
Ass – Foal
Bear – Cub
Tiger – Cub
Deer – Fawn
Cat – Kitten
Cow – Calf
Dog – Puppy
Duck – Duckling
Goat – Kid
Hen – Chicken
Horse – colt
Hare – Leveret
Sheep – Lamb
Elephant – calf
Wolf – cub
Stag – fawn
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